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Chapter 2

Human Antiquity Textbook Notes - Ch. 2

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Fall

Description
ANTA01Chapter 2 Key ConceptsthHistorical Perspectivesbelieve bible was accurate history until the 17 centuryattempts to determine the age of the world some used the bible and determined it was less than 6000 years old Archbishop James Usserdetermined the age of the earth by using the biblerdbelieved the world was created in the year 4004 BCand believed it was the 23 day of Octfigured by some math calculations and historical analysisphilosophers emerged calling themselves natural scientiststrying to figure out the world by using nature the thinkers were all religious and known as Godfearing folksdidnt question the bible tried to figure out the world through observing their external worldUniformitarianismGeology started to realize through nature there was physical changes in the earthscience of geologyviewed the earths appearance as a result of a series of natural catastrophesbible Noahs flood was viewed as a catastrophe and a very powerful one toobelieved that floods earthquakes and volcanic eruptions were global and as a result created the diverse layers of work and physical changes to the worldcatastrophistsan adherent of the idea that the world changed over timeby a series of catastrophic eventsgeology started to become an empirical science trying to explain the condition of the earth realized that changes to earth were slowacting steady processes of change but not catastrophesReverend Thomas Burnettbelieved the age of the earht could be determined by reference to the ordinary slow acting noncatastrophic natural processes of erosion by ice wind and waterconcluded the world was very youngargued if it was old than erosions would have taken away the tallest mountains he was wrong about the earth being young but correct about the natural phenomenadidnt realize the mountain building was still taking placeRobert Hookelooked at fossilspast believed fossils were tricks of naturesaid the earth was young interpreted them as remains of animals and plants that not longer existed concluding that organisms became extinct because the earth was always changingsaid could be catastrophes and also everyday events in nature like erosions longterm occurances he was correct the geological and biological records are the results of slow longterm phenomena and catastrophic events ex Extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago due to an asteroid changed the earths climatein the past believed catastrophic events had a divine origin and creation feature thby the late 18 century started to question the historical accuracy of the Genesisa scholar named Georges Buffon wrote a book called A Natural Historyarticulated the perspective of uniformitarianism concept that biological and geological process that affected the earth in the past still operate todayhe tried to explain the appearance of the earth to determine the earths age concluded that changes in the earth took place as result of natural processeslater tried to incorporate the genesisconcluded the earth was ancient and was divided into 6 epochs the 6 epochs were 1000 years in length and reflected the six days of creation in the bibleJames HuttonThe Theory of the Earth advanced the notion that by studying natural slowworking repetitive processes which is uniform like natural processes like erosionweatheringcould explain the earths geology and geography key element timebelieve God created earth as a selfregulating systembelieved the earth was at least hundreds and thousands of years old
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