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Chapter 4

Human Antiquity Textbook Notes - Ch. 4

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Genevieve Dewar

ANTA01Chapter 4 Key ConceptsGenetics Past Darwin knew their was variation but didnt know howdidnt know how traits were passed downgenetics the study of the mechanism of inheritance Darwin believed it was a blending a mixing of paretal substances offspring exhibited traits that appeared to be 5050 mixtures of their parents trait ex Pink flowers from a cross of red flowers and white flowersbut cannot be true for humans and sex can only be male or femaletrait Mendelsaid it wasnt blending butparticulate the idea that biological traits are controlled by individual factors than by a single hereditary agentthrough pea plant experiments he showed that an organism traits are passed from gen to gen by individual particles which he called factorstoday called genes the portion of the DNA molecule that codes for a specific proteinThe Genetic Code gene is a set of chemical instructions for the production of aprotein the family of molecules that makes cells and carries out cellular functionsfunctions include structural supporting the cellss internal structurebuilding membranessome proteins are enzymes a protein that controls chemical processesspeeds up the reactionex hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen to the cells a few proteins are hormoneshumans can produce atleast 100000 different proteins the genetic code is made up of a sequence of bases family of chemicals that are part of a long chainDNA the molecule that carries the genetic code the strands of DNA are wrapped around a series of proteins that make up chromosomes a strand of DNA in the nucleus of cellsFour bases are in the code A T C Gchemical bonds between the bases hold the DNA togetherbases only bond like this AT TA or CG or GC pairs the pairing allows the DNA molecule to make copies of itself during cell division ends are twisting in opposite directionscalled a double helix celldivisionthe helix unwinds and now the strand has unpaired bases which complementary bases attach this is called replication the copying of the genetic code during the process of cell divisionso when the cell divides and creates two new daughter cells they have a complete set of base pairsa gene is a portion of the DNA molecule that carries a code to make a certain protein protein synthesis the process by which the genetic code puts together proteins in the cellonly a portion is unwound mRNA the molecule that carries the genetic code out of the nucleus for translation into proteinsone strand carries the code the other is structuraltranscribes the gene by matching complementary bases to the ones exposed in the DNA coding strand where U replaces T a sequence of 3 DNA bases is known as a codon a section of the DNA that codes for a particular amino acidafter the code is transcribed by mRNAit leaves the nucleus to the ribosome where it is coded into a protein tRNA RNA that lines up amino acids along mRNA to make proteins reads the codons to make an amino acid the chief component of proteinsthere is about 20 proteins DNA bases represent the sequence of amino acids which determine the shapefunction of the proteineach species has a characteristic number of chromosome ex Humans46 Chimps48 Dogs78the offspring inherits one chromosome from each parent gets half of each parents genetic materialthe genes come in pairsgenes come with alleles a variant of geneseach with different codons it produces the same trait but produce different expressionsthe allele pair is known as genotype the alleles possessed by an organismcodes for as many proteins scattered and constantly interpreted
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