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Chapter 5

Human Antiquity Textbook Notes Ch. 5

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Genevieve Dewar

ANTA01Chapter 5 Key ConceptsHumansHomo sapiens genus species are bipedal able to walk on to legs quadrupedalwalking on a four limbsEvolution of PrimatesTaxonomy of 5 SpeciesHumanChimpanzeeBonoboGorillaOrangutanKingdomAnimaliaAnimaliaAnimaliaAnimaliaAnimaliaPhylumChordataChordataChordataChordataChordataClassMammaliaMammaliaMammaliaMammaliaMammaliaOrderPrimatesPrimatesPrimatesPrimatesPrimatesFamilyHominidaePongidaePongidaePongidaePongidaeGenusHomoPanPan GorillaPongoSpeciessapienstroglodytespaniscusgorillapygmaeus humans shares the same kingdom with the other 4 speciesdiffer in the since of familythe others are in the family of the apes pongidaeingest food have sense organs nervous systems andmobilenot members of the other three kingdoms of eukaryotes ex Like fungi plants and singlecelled organismsPhylumChordata because they have a bony spine descendant of the notochord Mammaliawarmblooded Classspecies usually have a constant body temperature have hair give birth to live young nourish the young with milk from mammary glands and have large and complex brains Chimp and Bonobo relationshipmore similar because they diverged from an ancestor recently Fossil record show thatbased on cladistic analysis the orangutan line diverged the earliest gorilla line after humans and chimpanzeesbonobo more recentPhenetic scheme looks at phenotypic and adaptive relationships shows that a family division is apparent between hominids humans and pongidsapes thats why the other 4 species look more similar to each other phenotypicallyCladisticslooks atbranches orangutans are placed in the family pongide and the the rest are in hominidae but are subdivided into subfamiliesPrimatesarborealtreedwelling humans are kind of the same though they are bipedal theyadapt well to the arboreal environmentsenses locomotion reproduction intelligence and behavior patternscreates variation SENSES acquires info about the environment primates best sense is VISION in color they have stereoscopic vision3d vision depth perception reduced senses in othersLOCOMOTIONmost mammals are quadrupedal able to grasp objects prehensileuse this trait for many forms of locomotion ex Branchiationable to swing from tree to tree with arms and handsorangutans use their fistopposablity able to pick up stuff have fingers and flat nailsREPRODUCTION usually have a single offspring at a time take direct care of their offspring
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