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Chapter 7

Anthropology Textbook: chapter 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Male are generally dominant to females Males and females have different hierarchies Very high-ranking females cam dominate the lowest ranking males In many lemur species the females are the dominant sex Bonded pairs (indris and gibbons) males and females are co-dominant Dominance and subordination are indicated by gestures and behaviours Some of which are universal throughout the primate order, including humans This gesture repertoire is part of every youngsters learning experience Young primates acquire social rank through play More time with play groups widens their social interactions Rough-and-tumble play allow them to learn the strengths and weaknesses or their peers Communication Universal among animals and includes scent and unintentional, autonomic responses and behaviours that convey meaning Body posture provides information about an animals emotional state Purposeful striding gait implies confidence Raised body hair, enhanced body odour - indicates excitement Primates have a wide range of gestures, facial expressions and vocalizations, some of which we humans share Threat gesture are: - a quick yawn to expose canine teeth (baboons and macaques) - bobbing back and forth in a crouched position (patas monkeys) - branch shaking (many monkey species) Baboons mount to express dominance - may also serve to defuse potentially tense situations by indicating something like “its ok, I accept your apology” Most primates crouch to show their submission Baboons present or turn their hindquarters toward an animal they want to appease Reassurance takes the form of : - touching -patting -hugging -Holding hands Grooming also indicates submission or reassurance Facial expressions indication emotional state is seen in chimpanzees and, especially, in bonobos Vocalizations play a major role in primate communications Abark of a baboon that has just spotted a leopard, is an unintentional startled reaction The Chimpanzee food grunt are only heard in specific context, like the presence of food These vocalizations inform other of the possible presence of a predator or food Displays are more complicated, frequently elaborate combinations of behaviours Exaggerated courtship dances of many male birds are displays Chest slapping and tearing vegetation are common gorilla threat displays Aggressive Interactions Interplay between aggressive behaviours, lead to group disruptions and affiliative behaviours, which promotes group cohesion Conflict develops out of competition for resources, including mating partners and food Most intraGroup aggression occurs in the form of various signals and displays Frequently in the context of a dominance hierarchy Tense situations are resolved through various submissive and appeasement behaviours High-ranking female macaques frequently intimidate, harass and even attack lower-ranking females Dominant females consistently chase subordinates away from food, and have even been observed taking food from their mouths Competition between males for mates frequently results in injury or even death In New World squirrel monkeys , conflict is most likely to occur in breeding season Species not restricted to a mating season, such as baboons and chimpanzees, competition between males can be ongoing Conflict occurs when a number of individuals attack and sometimes kill one or two others who may not be members of the same group Lethal aggression is relatively common between groups of chimpanzees This also includes colobus monkeys, spider monkeys, and capuchin monkeys Between groups, aggression is often used to protect resources or territories Groups are associated with a home range where they remain permanently Within the home range is a portion called the core area, which contains the highest concentration of predictable resources, where group is most found Core area can also be said to be a groups territory, and it’s the portion of the home range that is protected from intrusion Not all primates are territorial- territoriality is typical of species whose area is small enough to be patrolled and protected (gibbons and verevts) Male chimpanzees are highly intolerant of unfamiliar chimpanzees, especially other males, and fiercely defend their resources Chimpanzee inter-group interactions are almost always characterized by aggressive displays, chasing, and sometimes very violent fighting Unprovoked and Extremely brutal attacks by groups of chimpanzees on other chimpanzees 1973 Gombe Community - smaller offshoot group had denied the others access to part of their former home range Affiliation and Altruism Common affiliative behaviours include reconciliation, consolation, and simple amicable interactions between friends and relatives Involve various forms of physical contact: - touching - hand holding -hugging -and among chimpanzees, kissing Physical contact is one of the most important factors in primate development Crucial in promoting peaceful relationships and reinforcing bonds in many primate social groups Behaviours can be said to be examples of care giving or compassion Chimpanzee studies show actions of care giving that resembles compassionate behaviours in humans Include protecting victims during attacks, helping younger siblings, and remaining near ill or dying relatives or friends When chimpanzees have been observed sitting near a dying relative They were seen to occasionally shoo flies away or groom the other, as to try and help in some way Grooming is one of the most important affiliative behaviours in many primate species and serves hygienic functions Also an immensely pleasurable activity Members of some species, especially chimpanzees, engage in for long periods of time Grooming occurs in a variety of contexts: - mothers groom infants - males groom receptive females - subordinate animals groom dominant ones to gain favour -friends groom friends Reinforces social bonds and maintains a groups structure Reconciliation takes many forms, including hugging, kissing, and grooming Bonobos are unique in their use of sex to promote group cohesion At Gombe, the male chimpanzee Figan achieved alpha status because of support from his brother Chimpanzees heavily rely on coalitions Altruism is behaviour that benefits another while involving some risk or sacrifice from the performer Altruistic acts sometimes contain elements of what might be interpreted as empathy Chimpanzees routinely come to the aid of relatives Female langurs join forces to protect infants from infiniticidal males Male baboons protect infants and cooperate to chase predators Primate literature abounds with examples of altruistic acts whereby individuals place themselves at some risk to protect others from by conspecifics or predators Adopting orphans is a form of altruism that has been reported for capuchins, macaques, baboons, gorillas, and especially chimpanzees When chimpanzee youngsters are orphaned, they are almost always adopted usually by older siblings, who are attentive and highly protective Extremely rare for a chimpanzee orphans less than 3 years old to survive, even if adopted Individuals more likely to perform risky or self-sacrificing behaviours that benefit a relative ReciprocalAltruism emphasizes that performer help others to increase the chances that, at a future date, the recipient might return the favour Reproduction and Reproductive Behaviours Sexual behaviour is tied to the female’s reproduction cycle With females being receptive to males only when they are in estrus Estrus is behavioural changes
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