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Chapter 3

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Chap 3- Moral Development from the Standpoint of a General Psychological Theory Piaget said there were 2 major stages in the development of moral thought, first stage is a moral heteronomy of absolute and rigid judgments oriented toward multiple sources of external authority. Second stage more autonomous and relativistic subscription to principles obtained through social contract. Kohlberg’s 6 stages of moral development were more advanced. Social learning theories are based on internalized control of the overt behaviors, and cognitive theories are based on verbal indices of thinking process changes. Developmental-cognitive approaches to the acquisition of conscience provide a welcome antidote to a behavioristic paradigm in which an act is regarded as moral by virtue of its conformity to an external norm. You need to know someone’s values to know what they think is moral. Justin Aronfreed Punishment is not just physical and verbal attacks, it includes psychological things like rejection and disapproval, and all are an inevitable part of childrearing. Aronfreed’s experiment was conducted on boys and girls ranging from 8-10 years. First there is a training period where the kid is presented different pairs of small toy replicas of real ojbects, over 10 successive trials. One of the toys in each pair is always attractive while the other isn’t. The kid is supposed to pick the toy he likes and talk about it. When the kid starts talking about an attractive toy their punished by saying NO and depriving them of candy without explanation. The child is told before the experiment that some things are not permitted but that’s it. After one or two trials all the kids start picking the unattractive toys. If the kid is punished right when they reached for the toy, even when no ones around they don’t touch it, but if their punished after they get to touch the toy for a bit, right when their alone they go for it without resisting. This experiment shows that punishment attaches anxiety to certain internal monitors, wh
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