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chapter 1 study guide notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 1: The Nature of Anthropology Anthropology is the study of humankind in all places and in all times; they are concerned with everything that has to do with humans Development of Anthropology Division of anthro within the geological survey of Canada was created in 1911 It took so long for the systematic discipline to appear because there were limits of human technology, people have been restricted in their geological horizons; the study of foreign peoples and cultures was not likely to flourish until adequate modes of transportation and communication could be developed; third limitation was that Europeans only gradually came to recognize that beneath all the differences, they shared a basic humanity with people everywhere Canadian Anthropology 3 main influences are evident in the development of Canadian anthropology: museums, academic departments and applied research anthropologist look for the broad basis of human ideas and practices without limiting themselves to any single social or biological aspect; they can acquire an especially broad and inclusive overview of the complex biological and cultural organism that is the human being The Discipline of Anthropology divided into 4 fields: biological anthro, archaeology, linguistics anthro, and sociocultural anthro biological anthro is concerned primarily with humans as biological organisms; needs account for the interaction of human behavior and biology(i.e. HIV) archaeology explores the past primarily through the excavations of past human habitations; studies cultural behavior by reconstructing the lives of people who lived in the past; examines cultural behavior from the perspective of the content of archaeological sites sociocultural anthro deals with humans as cultural animals Linguistics is the study of human languages of the past and present, as a means for people to relate to each other and to develop and communicate ideas about each other and the world; linguistic relations in a region can inform the archaeological record by suggesting ancient migration patterns Applied anthro it is applying the knowledge and methods of anthro to solve practical problems of humanity BiologicalPhysical Anthropology Focuses on humans as biological organisms, and one of its many interests is human evolution Within it is subfield of paleaoanthropology: study of fossil remains of our ancestors, in an attempt to reconstruct the course of human biological evolution Primateology is the study of the biological, adaptive and social nature of our closest relatives, prosimians, monkeys and apes Through analysis of fossils and observation of living primates, biological anthropologists try to reconstruct the ancestry of the human species in order to understand how, when and why we became the kind of animal we are today Human skeletal biology is the analysis and interpretation of human bones, generally from archaeological sites; such remains help understand issues as the age and sex structure of a population, health and diet issues and interment patterns Forensic anthropology: a field of applied biological anthropology and archaeology that specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes Biological anthropologist applies all the techniques of modern molecular biology to achieve fuller understanding of human variation and the ways in which it relates to the different environments in which people have lived and to different cultural practices Forensic Anthro these people are specialists in human osteology and archaeologywork to identify and contextualize human remains for legal purposes www.notesolution.com
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