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Chapter 15

ANTA01 Chapter 15 Notes

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 15-The First Civilization (ANTA01: Pg.373-405)  Civilization: The larger social order that includes states related by language, traditions, history, economic ties, and other shared cultural aspects.  Cities: Urban centers that both support and are supported by a hinterland of lesser communities.  Cities, when they developed in prehistory, were often at the center of ancient states.  Cities are also characterized by social complexity, formal (nonkin) organization, and diverse craft and administrative specialists.  The city is a nucleus where production, trade, religion, and administrative activities converge.  Catalhoyuk: A early Neolithic site in southern Turkey (also named for “forked mound”)  Trade and religious activities promoted the development of Jericho and Catalhoyuk into relatively large and complex Neolithic communities.  State: A governmental entity that persists by politically controlling a territory; examples may include most modern nations.  The end result is still an evolutionary aspect, which pictures the development of cities, states, and civilizations, even though one that examines the cultural changes within a web of possibilities rather than the outcome of a succession of stages.  Social stratification: The class structure or hierarchy, usually based on political, economic, or social standing.  The development of true social classes implies another important aspect of states: Their main social institution are commonly organized on the basis of criteria other than that of kinship.  For example: States tend to appropriate the right to decide which acts of murder committed by its citizens will be punished as crimes and which will be rewarded with medals and marching bands.  Civilizations compromises the larger social order and set shared values in which states are culturally embedded. INSERT PG.379-380 DIAGRAM HERE.  The key to this circular working of the ancient Chinese society was the monopoly of high shamanism, which enabled the rulers to gain critical access to divine and ancestral wisdom, the basis of their political authority.  Shamanism: the traditional practices that mediates between the world of humans and the world of spirits.  Legacies have survived for millennia, and we can often recognize them within the framework of modern societies. Chapter 15-The First Civilization (ANTA01: Pg.373-405)  Mesopotamia: the land between the Tigris and Euphrate rivers, most included in modern day Iraq.  These agriculturist shared the heritage of such early Neolithic communities as Jarmo, in the Zagros foothills to the east, and Cayonu, at the edge of the Anatolian plateau.  Now, expanding onto the southern plains, these Ubaid farmers encountered great flood-prone streams bound only by immense mudflats and marshes.  Ubaid: Early formative culture of Mesopotamia, 7,500-6,200 ya: predecessor to Summerian civilization. SEE DIAGRAM on pg.379-380  Seasonal overflows deposited rich layers of alluvium, and when floodwaters receded, a long, dry summer followed.  Common domesticated animals included pigs, sheep, donkeys, and oxen, as the abundant harvests have supplemented by fish and game, more than kept pace with the rapidly growing floodplain communities.  Cities became the social environments within which the earliest Mesopotamian states emerged.  Developments associated with Uruk and other urban centers were an immediate prelude and stimulus to a new order in southern Mesopotamia around 5,000 ya.  Sumerians: The earliest civilization of Mesopotamia.  The region known as Sumer encompassed about a dozen largely autonomous political units, called city-states, in the southernmost Tigris-Euphrates Valley.  City-states: urban centers that form autonomous sociopolitical units.  The Sumerians had a technologically accomplished urban culture, economically dependent on large-scale irrigation agriculture and specialized craft production.  Ziggurat: Late Sumerian mud-brick temple-pyramid.  Cuneiform: Wedge-shaped writing of ancient Mesopotamia.  90% of early Sumerian writings concerned the kind of economic, legal, and administrative matters that are typical of complex bureau societies.  Gilgamesh: Semilegendary king and culture hero of early Uruk, reputed to have had many marvelous adventures.  Around 2334 B.C. , a minor Akkadian official assumed the name Sargon of A
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