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Chapter 2

ANT Chapter 2

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Fall

Description
ANTA01Chapter 2The Development of Evolutionary TheoryIntroduction 20 Humans did not evolve from monkeys or chimpanzees the earliest human ancestors evolved from a species that lived some 58 million years ago myalast common ancestor we share with chimpanzees Monkeys still exist bc as lineages diverged from a common ancestor each group went its separate ways A Brief History of Evolutionary Thought 21 Natural selectionrefers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success bw individualsThroughout the Middle Ages one predominant feature of the European worldview was that all aspects of nature including all forms of life and their relationships to one another never changed Fixity of speciesthe belief that lifeforms couldnt change this idea opposed theories of biological evolution Until the concepts of fixity and time were fundamentally altered it was impossible to conceive of evolution by means of natural selectionThe Scientific Revolution 21 The universe changed from earthcentered to suncentered initially by Copernicus but restated by Galileo Galileithth During the 16 and 17 century there were many scientific advances and technological advances ie telescope but the idea that living forms could change over time simply didnt occur to peoplePrecursors to the Theory of Evolution 22thJohn Ray 17 century was a minister educated at Cambridge University Developed the concept of species he was the first person to recognize that groups of plant and animals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability to mate with one another and produce offspringhe placed such groups of reproductively isolated organisms into a single categoryspeciesnd Species shared similarities w other speciesgrouped these together in a 2 level of classificationgenusCarlo Linnaeus best known for developing a method of classifying plants and animals 1735 standardized Rays use of genus and species terminologyestablished the system of binomial nomenclaturewhereby genus and species names are used to refer to species ie Homo sapienshuman beings He added two more categories class and order his fourlevel system became the basis for taxonomybranch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships Linnaeus included humans in his classification of animalsHomo sapiens Linnaeus was a believer of fixity of species initially but later questioned it bc of evidence against itGeorgesLouis Leclerc de Buffon Was keeper of the Kings Gardens in ParisHe recognized the dynamic relationship bw the external environment and living forms He believed that when groups of organisms migrated to new areas they were gradually altered as a result of adaptation to a somewhat different environmentErasmus Darwin Charles Darwins grandfather who counted among his friends some of the leading figures of this time to rapid technological and social changeWas famous as a poet In his most famous work he publicly expressed his views that life had originated in the seas and that all species had descended from a common ancestor
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