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Chapter 7

Ch. 7 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 7 THE EVOLUTION OF BEHAVIOR: Ecological - pertaining to all the relationships btw organisms and all aspects of their environment (temperature, predators, nonpredators, vegetation, availability for food and water, types of food, diseases) - study behaviour from an ecological and evolutionary perspective > focus on the relationship btw behaviours, the natural environment and various physical traits of the species Behavioral ecology - study of the evolution of behaviour, emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection - certain behaviours are infl uenced by genes, they're subject to natural selection in the same way physical characteristics are > behaviour constitutes a phenotype, and individuals whose behavioural phenotypes increase reproductive fi tness will pass on their genes at a faster rate than those who don't have those favourable behaviours in insects and other vertebrates > under genetic control > behavioural patterns aren't learned > their innate birds and mammals (primates) > learning > under genetic control reduced Exception: hormones > testosterone > increase aggression in species Behavioral genetics = study of how genes influence behaviour - behaviour must be viewed as the product of complex interactions btw genetic and environmental factors Plasticity - capacity to change; ability of animals to modify behaviours in response to differing circumstances Social Structure - the composition, size, sex ration of a group of animals; social structure of a species > result of natural selection SOME FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SOCIAL STRUCTURE: 1. Body Size: - large animals > few calories - large animals > retain heat more effi ciently 2. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) - concerns metabolism - the rate @ which the body uses energy to maintain all body functions while in a resting state - closely related to body size - smaller animals > higher BMR than larger ones - smaller primates > require an energy-rich diet high in protein, fats, carbohydrates - larger primates > lower BMR > can do well with less energy rich foods (leaves) 3. Diet - nutritional requirements relate to BMR and body size 4. Distribution of Resources - leaves > plentiful and dense > support large groups of animals - insects > widely scattered > animals that rely on them > usually feed alone or in small groups of 2 or 3 - fruits and nuts > dispersed in treeds/shrubs > occur in clubs > be exploited by smaller groups > large groups breaks up into subunits while feeding - SUBUNITS > one male multifemale group - some species that rely on foods distributed in small clumps > protective of resources, esp if feeding area = small enough to defend - primates that rely on seasonal foods > exploit diff types of food and must move about to have enough to eat 5. Predation - depending on size > vulnerable - response to predation > depend on body size, social structure and the type of a predator 6. Relationships with Other, Nonpredatory species - predator avoidance - share habitats with other species > exploit different resources 7. Dispersal - members of sex leave the group in they were born in about the time of puberty - male dispersal = more common - wen females leave > join another group - wen males leave > live a lone for awhile > join bachelor group until they create group of own - individuals who disperse > fi nd mates outside natal group - 2 reasons for dispersal: 1. reduced competiton for mates (btw males) 2. decreased likelihood of inbreeding 8. Life Histories - characteristics or developmental stages that infl uence reproductive rates - Ex: longevity, age of sexual maturity, length of gestation, time btw pregnancies - shorter life histories < advantages to species that live in marginal and unpredictable habitats > these specie
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