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ANTA01H3 (187)
Chapter 6

Ch. 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 6 - chimpanzees aren't monkeys…they're apes - Prosimians - members of a suborder Prosimii ; includes lemurs - Anthropoids - members of a suborder Anthropoidea ; includes monkeys, apes and humans PRIMATE CHARACTERISTIC -basic mammalian traits: - body hair - long gestation period -mammary glands - different types of teeth (incisors, canners, premolars, molars) - maintain body temp - brain size - specialized - evolved for a particular function ; usually refers to a specifi c trait but may also refer to a way of life - primatologists - scientists who study the evolution, anatomy and behavior of nonhuman primates - characteristics that set primates apart from mammals: 1. limbs and locomotion - erect posture - flexible limb structure - hands and feet with a high degree of prehensility (grasping ability) > five digits > opposable thumb > nails instead of claws > sensory nerve fibre 2. Diet and teeth - lack of dietary specialization - generalized dentition - teeth not specialized for one type of food 3. the senses and the brain - color vision - diurnal primates - depth perception - ability to perceive objects 3D > eyes positioned > front of face >binocular vision > each eye > visual centres > each hemisphere receives info from both eyes - decreased reliance on the sense of smell (olfaction) - expansion in size brain and increased complexity 4. Maturation, learning and behaviour - more efficient means of fetal nourishment , longer periods of gestation, reduced # ofsprings, delayed maturation, longer life spam - dependence flexible and learned behaviour (to do with delayed maturation ..dependent on one parent > offspring increased) PRIMATE ADAPTATIONS: - primates > dependent on vision > hunt small prey Geographical distribution and Habitats: - primates are found in tropical or semitropical areas of the NEw and Old world - Old word primates found : africa, indian, s.e asia, china, japan - old world monkeys: gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos > spend time on ground Diet and Teeth: - omnivore > lack of specialization - 4 kinds of teeth - incisors - canines > both for biting and cutting - premolars - molars > both for chewing - dental formulae > # of tooth each species have in each quadrant - Old word anthropoids : 32 teeth - gerneralize plancental mammal: - new world monkeys: Locomotion: - quadrupedal > limbe for terrestrial quadrupedal > same lenth > limbs for arboreal > forelimbs are shorter -Brachiation: > arms longer than legs > short stable back > long curved fingers > shortened thumbs - semibrachiators - swingging and leaping - all apex: arms longer than legs PRIMATE CLASSIFICATION: - taxonmy = Linnaeus - order primates: > divide into 2: > Prosimii > Anthropoidea - comparative genomics: > DNA sequence techniquesys > comparisons of - humans and chimps > shared common ancestor around 6-8 may - tarsiers > classified as prosimians…but more similar to anthropoids biochemically - P and A are replaced by Strepsirhini and Haplorhini > S - lemurs and lories > H - tarsiers, monkeys and apes A SURVEY OF LIVING PRIMATES: Lemurs and Lories: - primitive = more similar to the earlier mammalian ancestors > relaiance on smell > greater olfactory capabilities - dental comb: formed by forward projecting lower incisors and canines > grooming and feeding LEMURS: - only found on the island of madagasca ..and islands of east coast of africa -
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