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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 study guide notes

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Fall

Description
!"!Chapter 12: Rise of Cities and Civilization What Civilization means # in anthropology it refers to societies in which large numbers of people live in cities, are socially stratified and are governed by centrally organized political systems called states # occurred b/w 6K and 4500YA # late Neolithic societies exhibit some, but not all, of the characteristics of civilization # characteristic of first cities: o large size and population o expanded villages Social Complexity # comparative studies seek an understanding of societies by examining their similarities and differences # Elman service considers a variety of factors such as nature of social stratification and authority, distribution of foods, specialization of production and other activities and presence and nature of monuments o Bands were egalitarian groups of hunter-gatherers o Tribes: kinship-based organizations of populations that were larger than found in bands and they were usually farming or mixed economy groups with situational leaders but no permanent institutions or formal specialization o Chiefdoms have been larger populations and are stratified or class-based groups whose leaders belong to a kin group whose authority is religious. They form theocracy o States: stratified societies but their power base includes secular leaders, a full-time military, taxation and secular laws Agricultural Innovation # first culture change characteristic of life in cities occurred in farming methods # irrigation important factor affecting an increase of crop yields # intensification of agriculture did not mean people ate better than before because of centralized governments Diversification of Labor # with high crop yields with new farming methods and the increased population meant that a sizable number of people were available to pursue nonagricultural activities on full time basis # bronze age: in the Old World, the period marked by production of tools and ornaments of bronze; began about 2K B.C. in China, 3K B.C. in SW Asia and about 500 years earlier in SW Asia # to procure raw materials needed for their technologies, extensive trade systems were developed by the early civilizations Central Government # strong central authority required to deal with the many problems arising within the new cities because of their size and complexity # tried to make sure different interest groups provided the services expected of them and did not infringe on one another’s rights; it ensured city was save from enemies by constructing fortifications and raising army; levied taxes and appointed tax collectors; saw to it that merchants, carpenters or farmers who made legal claims received justice; guaranteed safety of the lives and property of ordinary people and assured that any harm done one person by another would be justly handled # surplus food had to be stored for times of scarcity and public works such as extensive irrigation systems or fortifications had to be supervised by competent, disinterested individuals Evidence of Centralized Authority # law codes, temple records, royal chronicles and excavation of city structures Earliest Governments # Hammurabi, Babylonian king—had efficient government organization and highly developed legal system that characterized his reign www.notesolution.com !$!# Quipu: colored beads, knots and ropes that had public records and historical chronicles Social Stratification # people ranked according to kind of work they did or the family into which they were born # people who stood at or near the head of the government were the earliest holders of high status # people engaged in economic activity were either at the lower class or outcasts Evidence of Social Stratification # burial customs o graves excavated in civilizations vary in size, mode of burial and number and variety of grave foods o skeleton from burial: elite live longer, eat better and enjoy easier life than other members of society # size of dwelling # written documents: preserved records of business transactions, royal chronicles, or law codes of a civilization # correspondence The making of civilization: Theories of civilization’s emergence Irrigation systems # hydraulic theory: the theory that sees civilization’s emergence as the result of the construction of elaborate irrigation systems, the functioning of which required full-time managers whose control blossomed into the first governing body and elite social class Trade networks # in regions of ecological diversity, trade mechanisms necessary to procure scarce resources # some form of centralized authority necessary in order to organize trade for the procurement of these and other commodities. Once procured, some system was necessary to redistribute commodities throughout the population # redistribution must have also required a centralized authority, promoting the growth of centralized government Environmental and Social Circumscription # civilizations develop where populations are hemmed in by mountains, seas or other human populations # as such populations grow, they have no space in which to expand, so they begin to compete for increasingly scarce resources # this results in the development of social stratification, in which an elite controls important resources to which lower classes have limited access # this leads to warfare and conquest, which, to be successful, require elaborate organization under centralized authority Religion # Maya civilization was a result of urbanization that occurred at places like Tikal # Maya religion probably developed initially as means of coping with the uncertainties of agriculture # action theory: theory that self-serving actions by forceful leaders play a role in civilization’s emergence Civilization and its Discontents # waste disposal; acute infectious diseases; social problems; warfare # classic Maya: period of growth and innovation at Tikal # end of population growth and outright abandonment of centers and evidence of increased warfare and nutritional problems: classic Maya collapse # complete collapse of southern centers apparently led to reestablishment of the Maya called postclassic, in the north www.notesolution.comChapter 12: Rise of Cities and Civilization What Civilization means in anthropology it refers to societies in which large numbers of people live in cities, are socially stratified and are governed by centrally organized political systems called states occurred bw 6K and 4500YA late Neolithic societies exhibit some, but not all, of the characteristics of civilization characteristic of first cities: o large size and population o expanded villages Social Complexity comparative studies seek an understanding of societies by examining their similarities and differences Elman service considers a variety of factors such as nature of social stratification and authority, distribution of foods, specialization of production and other activities and presence and nature of monuments o Bands were egalitarian groups of hunter-gatherers o Tribes: kinship-based organizations of populations that were larger than found in bands and they were usually farming or mixed economy groups with situational leaders but no permanent institutions or formal specialization o Chiefdoms have been larger populations and are stratified or class-based groups whose leaders belong to a kin group whose authority is religious. They form theocracy o States: stratified societies but their power base includes secular leaders, a full-time military, taxation and secular laws Agricultural Innovation first culture change characteristic of life in cities occurred in farming methods irrigation important factor affecting an increase of crop yields intensification of agriculture did not mean people ate better than before because of centralized governments Diversification of Labor with high crop yields with new farming
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