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ANTA01H3 (187)
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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Fall

Description
Ch 9 Motivating and Leading Employees o Psychological Contracts set of expectations contributions expected from employees and inducements expected in return to employees If managed effectively workers will be satisfied and motivatedo Human relations interactions and attitudes between employers and employeesJob Satisfaction degree of enjoyment derived from job Morale overall attitude employees have toward workplace Reflects degree to which they perceive their needs are being met Importance of SatisfactionMore efficiencyDissatisfied workers more likely to be absent high turnover percent of organizations workforce that leaves and must be replaced o Some turnover is healthy too much is waste of resources o Turnover on the rise in CanadaMotivation set of forces that causes people to behave in certain waysTheories of motivation 1 Classical Theory of Motivation Fred Taylor o People motivated almost solely by money o Scientific Management TimeandMotion studies each job redesigned to be most highly efficient increased productivity allowed for higher wages 2 The Hawthorne Study o Almost any action on the part of management that made workers believe they were receiving special attention increased productivity o Hawthorne effect workers productivity increases when they feel special attention from management 3 Contemporary Motivation Theories a The HumanResources Model o Theories X and Y X people must be forced to be productive manage them that way o Y people want to be productive manage them that way more effective b Maslows Hierarchy of Needs ModelHierarchy of 5 human needs People move from the bottom to top physiological to the top selfactualization and wont seek the next until the previous has been satisfied 1 Physiological needs necessary for survival water make salaries sufficient so employees can afford these comfortable working environment 2 Security needs stability and protection from unknown offer pension and job security 3 Social needs friendship friends at work belonging in a company 4 Esteem needs recognition and selfrespect Catchy job titles and large offices address this need 5 Selfactualization needs selffulfillment Give people jobs they can learn from and that are challenging o TwoFactor Theory HerzbergHygiene FactorsWorking conditions Lie on continuum from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfactionMotivating Factors o Recognition for job well donep Lie on continuum from satisfaction to no satisfaction Strategies for Enhancing Job Satisfaction and Morale a ReinforcementBehaviour Modification Theoryo Shape behaviour by linking reinforcement with desirable behaviours and punishments with undesired behavioursb Management by objectives o System of goalsetting that is applied throughout the entire organization o Each employee feels important to be part of companywide objectives c Participative Management o Employees given a voice in how their work is done o Increases feeling of commitment because they help shape their job o Becoming more popular in Canada o Empowerment energizing employees to create high quality customer service leading to repeat business Eg giving them the ability to offer freeproduct credit to dissatisfied customersd Team Management one level higher than Participative Management o Employees given a voice in how work across the organization is done o Consulting employees on a broad level such as production scheduling work procedures or hiring new employees The above two strategies are becoming increasingly popular to enhance employee motivationAlways recognize that some employees are frustrated by extra responsibilities just as some are energizedJob Enrichment and Job Redesign o Used to increase satisfaction in jobs which gravely lack motivating factors o Job Enrichment Programs deal with adding motivating factors to job activities such as increasing responsibilityo Job Redesign programs Increase workerjob fit by redesigning jobCombining Tasks enlarging jobs to increase their variety Forming natural work groups grouping people with different jobs to see the importance of each job in relation to the otheestablishing client relationships employees allowed to interact with customers to increase job varietyModified Work SchedulesFlextime allows workers to pick their own working hours each day
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