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Chapter 3 study guide notes

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Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 3: Biology and Evolution Anthropomorphism: ascription of human attributes to nonhuman beings Evolution: descent with modification; forces permit primates to adapt to environments in a variety of ways The classification of living things analogies: structures that are superficially similar; result from convergent evolution; they may serve a similar purpose but they are built from different parts and do not pass through the same stages of embryonic development homologies: structures possessed by two different organisms that arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development; common ancestry species is a population or group of populations that is capable of interbreeding but that is reproductively isolated from other such populations on the basis of homologies, like species are organized into larger, more inclusive groups, called genera (system of plant and animal classification, a group of like species) characteristics that Linnaeus based his system were: body structure, body function and sequence of bodily growth species is the only taxonomic category that is not based on interpretations of relationships classification of fossils is based mainly on structure and depending on the extent of the record, function and growth modern taxonomy is based on chemical reactions of blood, protein structure and genetic material itself; even comparison of parasites is useful, for they tend to show the same degree of relationship as the forms they infest notochord: rod-like structure of cartilage that, in vertebrates, is replaced by the vertebral column The Discovery of Evolution species were seen as being just as they had always been since the time of creation Lamarck proposed that species change and the acquired characteristics could be inherited Catastrophism is the view that layers of fossils were evidence of new acts of divine creation Uniformitarianism: view that forces shaping the contemporary world were no different in the past Lyell wrote a book on processes that formed the earth. He was able to define certain geological epochs using fossils Natural selection: evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure that favors some individuals over others to produce the next generation o In their struggle for existence, organisms with advantageous variations for survival in a particular environment will do better than those without them, thereby reproducing with greater success o As generation succeeds generation, nature selects the most advantageous variations, and species evolve During Cambrian explosion (525 and 545 MYA), marine animal life evolved and diversified at a rate never seen before or since Heredity heritable variation constitutes the raw material for evolution Transmission of Genes genes: portions of DNA molecules that direct the synthesis of proteins. DNA molecules have the unique property of being able to produce exact copies of themselves; unit of heredity Mendel found that inheritance was particulate rather than blending; the units controlling the expression of visible traits retain their separate identities over the generations Mendels law of segregation: variants of genes for a particular trait retain their separate identities through generations Law of independent Assortment: genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another www.notesolution.com
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