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ANTA01 Ch 7

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Genevieve Dewar

Ch 7 Learning about the Past The Material RecordWhere The Process of Finding Sites Site a place that contains evidence of a past human presenceArtifact objects made by humansFeature a nonportable element of a site composed of artifacts graveArchaeological site survey 1 Reference to previous research conducted in an area 2 Examination of local history for discoveries by inhabitants 3 Contacting local artifact collectors Archaeologists locate sites by considering envt variables areas w water sources available wood fertile landclose to animals are favourable Field Survey the process of discovering archaeological sitesRemote sensing noninvasive examination of sites where no soil is removed Electrical resistivity survey a noninvasive procedure used in archaeological prospecting in which an electrical current is passed through the ground variations in resistance to the current may signal the location of archaeological artifacts or featuresProton magnetometry a noninvasive technique used in archaeological prospecting in which a proton magnetometer measures the strength of the earths magnetic fieldthe surface variations in that magnetic field may signal the location of buried remains including wallsfoundations Ground penetrating radar GPR a noninvasive technique used in archaeological prospecting in which an electromagnetic pulse is passed through the soil variations in the pulse as it reflects off buried objects may signal the location of archaeological remains wallsnatural erosion help expose ancient soil levelsfossil remains Olduvai Gorge in Africain most cases natural deposition buries archaeological sitesTest boring a small excavation to estbl the presence of an archaeological site often a narrow column of soil extracted by the use of a hollow metal tubeTransect a line of systematically located test boringsSounding a test excavation usually a small pit or column dug to expose stratigraphic layersto search for archaeological material a test pittest pits are placed according to diff sampling strategies whether its placedregular intervals along a straight line in square grid or checkerboard pattern Compliance archaeology archaeological research mandated by govt regulations aimedhistoricenvt preservationRandom sample randomly selected points within a research area tested for the presence of archaeological material with the goal of obtaining a representative sample of sites in a region Representative sample a small sample of a large popn in which the characteristics of the sample ages sizes activities functions etc proportionally match those found in the overall populationWhat Recovering Archaeological DataDifficult to retrieve buried artifacts while still preserving the information of a siteExcavation hand tools include masons trowels dental picks artists brusheswhisk brooms to carefully scrape soil awaySpatial context wherewith what an artifact is found in a siteprovides information about the behvr of ancient peopleProvenience the precise location of an artifactAssociation the spatial relshs of artifacts one to another what it was found with Archaeological sites are segmented into grids or squares
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