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ANTA01 Ch 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Ch 9 The Human Lineage Evolves 259319 The First Members of Genus HomoSimple tools uncoveredthe Olduvai Gorge in 59 by the Leakeys Lower Paleolithic term used to label the earliest period of hominid toolmaking in Africa EuropeAsia 25 mya in Africa to 250 000 ya throughout the Old World Oldowan a toolmaking tradition f Africa associated w early HomoPebble tool the earliest type of hominid stone tool made f watersmoothed stones w a few flakes taken off one or both sides Core tool a tool made by taking a flake off a stone Meat cuttingscrapingPlanting materialSawing woodboneHigh level of planningtechnological skillOne study found the thumbs of Australopithecus and Paranthropus to have the dexterity to make stone tools Homo habilis the handy man 59 2316 mya Tanzania Kenya Ethiopia S AfricaMay have been responsible for the tools Increased brain size 680 ml CCEncephalizationgreater intelligencecomplex thoughtReally long armsarboreal Despite its modern teethskull its limbs are even more primitive than Australopithecines Lived in stone cache sites areas w Oldowan tools animal bonesflakesAntelope diet rich in marrowMixed grasswoodlandSmall cooperative groupsPresent for half a million yrsEarliest member of our genus HomoBipedalismlarge brainssocial organizationstool techHominid evolution Homo rudolfensis East Turkana KenyaLarger bodybrain than H habilisLack of a continuous brow ridgeHomo ergaster work man 178 mya East Turkana in Kenya Heavy brow ridgePrognathous faceSloping foreheadElongated profileSagittal keel a sloping of the sides of the skull toward the top as viewed f the frontSharply angled occipital bone the rear portion of the skullPronounced torus a bony ridgethe back of the skull where the neck muscles attach980 ml CCSmaller facial bonesThinnerhigher in profile Turkana boy dated16 myaHomo erectus Pithecanthropus erectus upright apeman Java Man 1 mya 1891 Java 1000 ml CC modern human range
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