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ANTA01 Ch 13

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Genevieve Dewar

Ch 13 The Evolution of Civilization 6 000 ya PG 534Agriculture food surplus wealthpower socialpolitical systemsCivilization cultures w a food surplus social stratification labour specialization rule by power monumental construction projectsa system of recordkeeping 1 Foodlabour surplus controlled by an elite2 Social Stratification the presence of acknowledged differences in social status political influencewealthPaleolithicearlier Neolithic societies were egalitarian 3 Formal Govta State class societies often rigidly stratified into social levels w a ruling class controlling the populace not by consensus by coercionsforceDecisionmaking laws taxes b Tribe a grouping of ppl organized largely by kinship there is no central ruler but individuals may obtain prestigeauthority through their achievements c Chiefdom a level of sociopolitical integration more complex than the tribe but less so than the state Kings pharaohs or emperors of state societies 4 Labour SpecializationFood surplus must be maintained to feed the number of mouths who engage in specialization through art architecture engineering craftsscience5 Monumental works tombs palaces pyramidsGrandiose public statements Rulers visibly advertise what theyre capable of through powerThe combo of secularreligious power is effective to control a large popn6 Dense popn cities are more easily ruled7 System of RecordkeepingKeeping track of wealth in the form of labourfood contributions by the citizens Control of info knowledge is power Hypotheses for the Evolution of Civilization 1 RaceA racist explanation that assumed that certain racial or ethnic groups were inherently superiorso evolved civilized societies2 Envt Determinism the notion that the nature of the envt directly determines the technological level of a cultureHuman groups became more intelligentprogressed further where the envt was more challenging 3 Unilinear evolutionCulture in essence drives itself forward specific inventions are made fire bowarrow pottery domestication iron writing Wo coming upon these successive inventions cultures became stuck4 MarxismThe trappings of civilization devld after the invention of private property Some individuals became wealthyneeded to protect their wealth Social classesspecialization followed 5 HydraulicThe need to control water for irrigation purposes led to the devlpt of organizations to builtmaintain waterworks To accomplish this there had to be leadersfollowersinstitutions originated for this purpose evolved into the bureaucracy of the state6 CircumscriptionSocieties that had effectively filled up their territory waged war against their neighbours to obtain their land The losers in such battles became the lower class in an emerging stratified society that led to the civilized state
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