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Chapter 9

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Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 9 Notes Hominin OriginsPlioPleistocene Pertaining to the Pliocene and first half of the Pleistocene a time range of 51 mya For this time period numerous fossil hominins have been found in AfricaEarliest fossils identified as hominins been as early as 7 mya and after 4mya fossils became more plentifulHominins evolved from earlier primates dating back close to 50 myaEarly Primate EvolutionThe earliest primates were diverging from early and still primitive placental mammals 7565 myaVast amounts of fossil are found from the Eocene period 5534 mya 200 recognized speciesThey may be related to ancestors of the prosimians the lemurs and lorises strepsirhinesThe Oligocene 3323 mya gave remains of several different species of early anthropoidsMost of these are forms o f Old World Anthropoids discovered in EgyptThere are bits from North and South America that relate only to the New world monkeysEarly Oligocene continental drift had separated new world the Americas from the old world Africa and EurasiaLate Eocene or early Oligocene primitive monkeys arose in Africa and later reached south America by raftingAncestry of New world monkey and old world monkey remain separate after about 35 myaHumans closest to old world monkeys and apesImportant genus of the Fayum is ApidiumApidium represented by several dozen jaws or partial dentitions as well as many postcranial remainsPostcranial post meaning after In a quadruped referring to that portion of the body behind the head in a biped referring to all parts of the body beneath the head ie the neck downSome suggest that Apidium may lie near or even b4 evolutionary divergence of old and new world anthropoidsSmall squirrel sized primate ate mostly fruits and seeds most likely arboreal quadruped adept at leaping and springingOther genus Aegyptopithecus represented by well preserved crania and jaws and teethSize of modern howler monkeyShort limbed slow moving arboreal quadrupedBridges the gap between the Eocene fossils and the succeeding Miocene hominoidsMiocene Fossil Hominoids 235 myaThe golden age of hominoidsGroup Miocene hominoids geographicallyoAfrican forms 2314 mya western Kenya include primitive hominoids The best known Genus is Proconsul More like an ape than hominoids Only teeth that link them to hominoidsoEuropean Forms 1611 mya France Spain Italy Greece Austria Germany and Hungary Not well understood group Evolutionary relationship uncertain but some say linked with African apehominin groupoAsian Forms 157 mya largest and most varied group Dispersed from Turkey to India and to China Sivapithecus and Lufengpithecus4 general points certain about Miocene hominoid fossils spread out there are many span a great portion of the Miocenewith known remains dated between 236mya and at present they are poorly understood Draw the following conclusionoThese are hominoidsmore closely related to the apehuman lineage than to old word monkeysoMostly large bodied hominoidsmore closely related to orangutans gorillas chimpanzees and humans than to smaller bodies apes gibbons large bodied hominoids Those hominoids including the great apes orangutans chimpanzees gorillas and hominins as well as all ancestral forms back to the time of divergence from smallbodied hominoids ie the gibbon lineageoMost of the Miocene forms not ancestral to any living formoSivapithecus shows highly derived facial features similar to an Orangutans suggesting close evolutionary linkoNew finds from Kenya Ethiopia and Chad suggest hominins diverged sometime in the latter MioceneDefinition of HomininEarliest evidence of hominins been found dates to the end of the Miocene andincludes dental and cranial piecesHominins Colloquial term for members of the tribe Hominini which includes all bipedal hominoids back to the divergence from African great apes
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