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Chapter 3

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Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 3 Heredity and EvolutionIntroHaving an extra digit is called polydactylGenetics the study of gene structure and action and of patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring genetic mechanisms are the underlying foundations for evolutionary changelife on Earth can be traced back to 37 billion years first prokaryotic cell12 billion years ago eukaryotic cellNatural SelectionNatural selection acts on genetic variation in populationIf all individuals in a population genetically identical no natural selectionSexual repreoudtion and meiosis are the major evolutionary importance cuz they enhance role of natural selection on a populationPrinciple of Segregation Genes alleles occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs During gamete production the members of each gene pair separate so that each gamete contains one member of each pair During fertilization the full number of chromosomes is restored and members of gene or allele pairs are reunitedMendelian Traits Characteristics that are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus Examples include many blood types such as ABO Many genetic disorders including sicklecell anemia and TaySachs disease are also Mendelian traitsMitochondiral DNA InheritanceMitochondrial DNA subject to muatationBoth sexes inherit their mitochondrial traits from their motherAll variations in mtDNA is caused by mutation therefore mtDNA is very useful for studying genetic change over timeModern Evolutionary TheoryJulian HuxleyDefine evolution as a 2 stage process1 the production and redistribution of variation inherited differently among organisms2 Natural selection acting on this variation
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