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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Fall

Description
Chpt 5: Taxonomy: A classification bases on similarities and differences  Made by linneaus  All vertebrae derived from notochord, a long cartilaginous rod running down the back to support the body nad protect the spinal cord  Class: Mammals, some characteristics are: Giving birth to young live, having haur, maintain a constant body temperature  Although sometimes not everyone has all the characteristics of a mamal, the main thing is adaption  Mammals are animals that are adapted through active lifestyle and a reliance on learned behavior facilitated by a set of traits  Order: Primates: Humans in the family Hominidae, while the other four are members of the family Pongidae ( which are the great apes)  Orangutan is placed in the genus: Pongo  African Gorilla: Gorilla (genus) and the chimp’s genus is Pan  Lineas’s taxonomy is a phonetic taxonomy, is based on phenotype rather than evolutionary Cladistics:  Based on evolution  Oragatun diverged from us the earliest  Then it was gorilla  Then Chimp/bonobo diverged afterwards  First based on shared derived characteristics and then by genetics  In phentic sheme, there is a divide between humans and apes ( which is obivious due to the fact the apes all resemble one another)  But in cladistics, there is no such thing as ape, there is no clade that include all apes and excludes humans  If Cladisstic is used, hominid is not longer bipedal primate, but qudrupedal chimp, bonobos and gorillas Primates:  The essential environment for a primate is trees, primate are arboreal, even though humans aren’t anymore, are bodies are adapted to it Similar characteritiscs of primates The senses  Most primates see in colour  Primates have true depth perception which is stereoscopic vision Locomotion Primates are prehensile, the ability to grasp Move through brachiation: To swing through trees using arms and hands  Most primates also have some degree of opposability- the ability to touch the thumb to the tips of other fingers on the same hand, enabling them to the tips of the othe fingers on the same hand, enablingthem to pick up small objects  Have flat nails, instead of claws Reproduction:  Nearly all primates only have 1 offspring at a time  Have the longest postnatal dependency relative to body size of all mammals  Primates take care of their young Intelligence:  Primates have the largest nad complex brain of all mammals Behavior Patterns  Recognize individuals and individuals each hold a certain status within a primate group  Nearly all primates recognize a special status for gemales with infants  Chimpanzee  Some primates have domaince hierarchies  Only humans have a complex symbolic language, most primates have a large repertoire of signs and signals with specific meanings  Grooming: Serve as a source of reassurance to maintain group harmony and unity Primate Portfolio  Primates are divided into two major groups: Subordres: Prosimii and anthropoidea  Prosmians represent the most primitive primate  Prosimians are nocturnal ( about half), and have a better sense of smell that most primates  Protuding snout and have large eyes ( not no colour vision), they have prehensile hand nad feet Anthropods: Two divisions: Platyrrhini and catarrhini Platyrrhini: Western Hemisphere: New World Catarrhini: East Hemisphere: Old World ( All humans, apes, monkeys, hominids) Platyrrhini:  Flat nose  More
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