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ANTA02H3 (143)
Chapter 3

chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Victor Barac

Ethics and Methods Ethics and Anthropology The American Anthropological Association (AAA) believes that generating and using knowledge of the peoples of the world is a worthy goal. The mission of AAA is to advance anthropological research and encourage the spread of anthropological knowledge through publications, teaching, public education and application As anthropologist research and engage in other professional activities, ethics issues inevitable arise. To guide its members in making decisions involving ethics and values, the AAA offers a Code of Ethics- the most recent revision of the code, adopted in 2009, recognizes that anthropologists have obligations to their scholarly field, to the wider society and culture and to the human species and other species the environment. This codes aim is to offer guidelines and to promote discussion and education, rather than to investigate allegations of misconduct. Its main points are: 1. Anthropologists should be open and honest about their research projects with all parties affected by the research. 2. These parties should be informed about the nature, procedures, purpose, potential impacts and source of support for the research 3. Researcher should not compromise anthropological ethics in order to conduct research 4. They should pay attention to proper relations between themselves as guests and the host nations and communities where they work 5. The AAA does not advise anthropologists to avoid taking stands on issues. Indeed, seeking to shape actions and policies maybe as ethically justifiable as inaction In the host country (the nation where the research takes place), the ethnographer seeks permissions, cooperation, and knowledge from government officials, scholars and many others, most importantly the people of the of the community being studied Cultural sensitivity is paramount when the research subjects are living people into whose lives the anthropologist intrudes. www.notesolution.com To work in a host country and community, researchers must inform officials and colleagues there about the purpose and funding, and the anticipated results and impacts of the research. Before the research begins, people should be informed about the purpose, nature, and procedures of the research and its potential costs and benefits to them. Informed consent- agreement to take part in the research after having been so informed; should be obtained from anyone who provides info or who might be affected by the research. According to the AAA code, anthropologies should reciprocate in appropriate ways: 1. Include host country colleagues in their research plans and funding requests 2. Establish collaborative relationships with those colleagues and their institutions 3. Include host country colleagues in publication of the research results Research Methods Different methods of data collection and analysis emerged to deal with those different kinds of societies. To study large scale, complex nations, sociologists came to rely on questionnaires and other means of gathering masses of quantifiable data For many years sampling and statistical techniques has been basic to sociology, whereas statistical training has been less common in anthropology Traditional ethnographers studied small, nonliterate (without writing) populations and relied on ethnographic methods appropriate to that context. Ethnography is a research process in which the anthropologist closely observes, records, and engages in the daily life of another culture- an experience labelled as the fieldwork method- and then writes accounts of this culture emphasizing descriptive detail Participant observation- taking part in the events one in observing, describing, and analyzing. www.notesolution.com Anthropology started to separate from sociology around 1900. Founders of both sociology and anthropology- French scholar Emile Durkheim Ethnography: Anthropologys Distinctive strategy Anthropology developed into a separate field as early scholars worked on Indian (Native American) reservations and traveled to distant lands to study small groups of foragers (hunters and gathers) and cultivators. Early ethnographers lived in small scale, relatively isolated societies, with simple technologies and economies Ethnography emerged as a research strategy in societies with greater cultural uniformity and less social differentiation than are found in large, modern, industrial nations. Ethnographers adopt a free-ranging strategy for gathering information. In a given society or community, the ethnographer moves from one setting to setting, place to place, and subject to subject to discover the totality and interconnectedness of social life
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