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Feeding Desire chp 3&4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Maggie Cummings

Chapter 3 • Women’s bodies inherently attract, and men’s bodies are inherently attracted • beauty of fattening is in fact deeply embedded in and shaped by Islam The centrality of Islam in Azawagh Arab life • They believe that they are all descended from prophet Mohammad • Considering Islam is to offer all humans the only path to salvation Islam and Islams • For the Azawagh Arabs, Islam is not something they converted to at some point in the past but is something in their blood Islam and the body • Islam suffuses the bodies as well as the minds and souls of the faithful not only because of Islamic understanding of how the body works, but especially because of the regular corporeal devotion it demands o Prostration toward Mecca five times a day amidst a series of ritualized bodily postures that accompany prayer. • Islam is “a constant attention paid to one’s own body” • The euphemism commonly used for menstruation is “lack of prayer” • Menstruation puts women in an impure state not only because the blood itself is conceived of as unclean, but also because in menstruation a woman’s body is opened and uncontained • Islam is a highly embodied faith in the bodily obedience it demands of adherents o Prostration and fasting It is also a faith that speaks to the body in the implied meanings it bestows upon the body’s forms, particularly female forms. • Women do not pray during the forty days of confinement following childbirth, when the bodies are open and leaking inner fluids to the outer world Islam, gender, and the social fabric www.notesolution.com • Men and women are considered to be profoundly different types of creatures • The qu’ran allows polygyny which is rarely practiced by Azawagh Arabs o In order for you to perform polygyny a male must be able to treat all his wives equally o Therefore some females believe Islam does not allow polygyny Structures of Islamic life • Islam is about an individual’s relationship to God • is the highest position held in the Muslim hierarchy o The supreme authority on Islamic knowledge, and leads prayers on the high holy days Spirits • Dusk is the time of day when one must be especially careful to guard against spirit interference • They seek out bodies that are somehow compromised in their wholeness: o Vulnerable little children, women who are “open” from childbirth, people weakened by disease, or those with open wounds on their skin • Myriad activities are performed of deflecting spirits’ • Ahajab: pieces of paper with the Koran written on them, sewn in small pouches • Upper right arm as many men wear today to give them strength and protect them against swords and guns • Amulets can be encased in beautifully tooled silver, dyed leather, or in simple pouches of cloth or even plastic • Women are far more susceptible to spirit “infection” Lived Islam The most defining features of Azawagh Arabs’ own self image, for both men and women Chapter 4 www.notesolution.com • Fattening increases chances of having a good husband • Qadi: Islamic judge • Getting a divorce and remarriage is common (since women marry at a young age) getting married again and again takes a lot of time Kith and Kin in daily life • Most of the Arab villagers of Tassara were really members of two large extended families, with a few more distantly related “satellite” families • The only people women spent time with were not able to be traced were the ones of other castes • Men were the wider social circle, but blood kin were the people they too depended on • Betraying your blood kin is as betraying Allah • Azawagh prefer to marry first cousins • Hawli: • Alem: • Harataniyyah: • Hajale: Challenges of Marriage • Men want sex and compliance • Women want martial things- they care about work and money • women should talk to her husband at night in bed when they discuss things • Masteghiba: • Marriage should be about respect and affection to the benefiting of the kin • Azawagh Arabs believe in Patrilateral marriage (cousins from dads side) • When a woman cannot marry her husband it is called mehrima. They can openly chat. If a women is not mehrima then they have to be in a distance www.notesolution.com Blood Ties • A man is who creates a child o Sperm forms a bubble and a fetus is formed as a result o A women has no power over a child, if she has a divorce with her husband o The mans family or he takes the child and takes care of them • A father’s brother is an ‘am • A mothers brother is a khal • ‘am, the parental uncle, is a person one can depend on for support and protection • Khal, the maternal uncle, will be more demonstratively affectionate but less significant in terms of support, marriage arrangement, and long-term alliances • As a saying “if you are hungry go to your maternal relatives, and if you need protection go to your paternal relatives.” • Share same blood o Nas: all people who share the same blood o Khut: brother o Ulad’am: parental relatives- literally father’s brothers children o Ahel: relatives • If the specific is unknown, people may say “there is a blood relationship between us.” • Relatives of father are the back • Relatives of the mother are the stomach Ties through men • When a son is born women ululate • When a daughter is born, a women quietly thank God that mother and child are all right • are given larger name-day ceremonies on the seventh day after birth then girls are www.notesolution.com • While a matrilateral uncle will lovingly kiss and play with his nephews and nieces • Father or Patrilateral uncle will retain a much stricter and more distant demeanor Tribes • One is to marry in his/her own tribe Ties through Women • Women insure the family and the tribe’s purity by never marrying on-Arabs o By bearing sons o By safeguarding family prestige in their fattened swathed bodies at the center of the tent • Maternal relatives are free to show affection to children Milk kinship • Having a blood like relationship by drinking the milk • A woman’s nursing of a child is tantamount to a blood relationship • In Saudi Arabia, milk ties were considered as binding as blood ties • Women play a dominant role in “nursing” kinship relations, both literally and figuratively Kinship and sentiment • Arab kinship is a matter of duties and rights, but it is also a matter of sentiments • It is hard to separate the two • Relationship through men are characterized by strictness, duty, and loyalty • Relationship through women are characterized by warmth and gentleness • Two types of love that the Azawagh believe in o Love between brothers o Love between opposite sex • Love according to Allah www.notesolution.com o Hubb ‘ala Allah: is a companionship and loyalty between friends, family, and people of the same sex o Easy, straightforward, controllable, and righteous o Love for a women is only wantin
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