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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Michael Schillaci

ANTB14 Chapter 1 oEcology: the study of interrelationships of organisms and their environment oMorphology: study of form and structure of organisms Evolutionary Anthropologists Study: oPrimatology: scientific study of our closest extant (living) biological relatives: non-human primate species Study primate anatomy and primate psychology Primatologists try to conserve primates that might go extinct oPaleoanthropology: study of biological evolution of humans and non-human primates Excavation of fossils Investigate advent and changes in human cultural activities Ex. Tool use, subsistence patterns, and disease Investigate evolutionary history of humans and non-human primates oHuman Variation: studied to determine spatial and temporal variations in human feature Humans vary in size, shapes, and colours but belong to the same species oMedical Anthropology: study of how social, environmental, and biological factors influence health and illness of individuals from all levels Investigation of spatial and temporal variations in human survival, disease, health disparity oForensic Anthropology: focuses on skeletal remains of humans Skeletal remains analyzed to determine: age, sex, stature, ancestry, and trauma/ disease of deceased How Evolutionary Anthropologists Conduct Research: oConduct 3 types of research Descriptive research: involves collecting data about study subjects/objects  This type of research does not provide explanations for observations Causal research: involves looking for one thing causes another thing happen or change Applied research: involves scientists determining the means by which a specific, recognized need can be met  Medical + Forensic Anthropologists focus on this type of research oScientific Theory involves: Observing phenomena Formulating hypothesis about phenomena Developing methods to test validity of hypothesis Experimentation Conclusion supporting/modifying hypothesis  Data collected must be repeatable, observable, empirical and measurable(qualitative or quantitative) Development of Evolutionary Concepts oCarl Linnaeus Studied plants and interested in classifying them 2 important contributions  Taxonomic system: classifying all living things in ranked hierarchy from highest generalized category to species level  Binomial nomenclature: genus(taxonomic group exhibiting similar characteristics) and species are written in Latin • Ex. Homo(human) sapiens(wise) oGeorge-Louis Leclerc Wrote Histoire Naturelle (notable contribution)  Described everything to his knowledge about natural history at the time  Ideas included what is now biogeography(study of where organisms live, why they are there or not there) Other primary contribution was that he proposed that species changed and evolved after they moved from the place they were created  Similar to Darwin’s natural selection oJean Baptist Lamarck Major contribution: suggested that individuals lose traits that aren’t used and developed useful traits that can be passed on to offspring  Ex. Which suggests that Hulk Hogan’s large muscles(acquired character) should be passed on to offspring • Large muscles are acquired trait not heritable Lamarckism is no longer accepted by modern biologists oGeorge Cuvier His studies and publications on structural similarities and differences between organisms helped establish disciplines such as comparative anatomy and palaeontology  Comparing/contrasting tissues of living + extinct organisms In his time, his idea that extinction has occurred in some animals was in direct opposition to the concept: fixity of species (idea that god created all living things and that they have not changed and will not in the future)  Basically animals do no change or go extinct Also championed the concept of catastrophism (catastrophic events altered geological features and caused extinction of plants/animals  Doesn’t refute biblical version of earth’s age Was critical of Lamarck’s evolutionary theory  Cuvier mainly suggested that species just go extinct(major contribution) James Hutton Made many contributions to founding of geology as science Proposed successive upheaval and erosion of sedimentary rock had been occurring for millions of years and continue to occur forever  These ideas form the school of thought , uniformitarianism(earth was formed and evolved through the same natural geological processes operating today) oCharles Lyell Made major contribution to geology in the fields of stratigraphy (study of rock layers) and glaciology (study of how glaciers form) This had influenced Darwin and contributed to evolutionary concepts oCharles Darwin Fascinated by stories of tropical forests Talked a lot about zoology, taxonomy, biological evolution  Spent a lot of time collecting insects Joined expedition to s
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