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ANTB14H3 (34)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Schillaci

Week 3 Chapter 4: Speciation and Phylogeny Microevolution: how populations change under the influence of natural selection and other evolutionary forces o Natural selection, mutation, genetic drift o Affect morphology, physiology, behaviour of particular species in particular environments Macroevolution: how species and higher taxa are created o Tells how new species, genera, families, higher groupings come into existence Species can usually be distinguished by their behaviour and morphology Most zoologists believe in biological species concept: defines a biological species as a group of organisms that interbreed in mature and are reproductively isolated Reproductive isolation: members of a given group of organisms do not mate successfully with organisms Biological species concept defines a species in terms of ability to interbreed because successful mating leads to gene flow Gene flow: the movement of genetic material within parts of a population or from one population to another o Tends to maintain similarities among members of same species Reproductive isolation prevents species from genetically blending Ecological species concept emphasizes the role of selection in maintaining species boundaries Allopatric speciation: when population divided by some type of barrier and different parts of population adapt to different environments If there is some gene flow after the members of 2 populations initially come back into contact, 2 additional processes may increase degree of reproductive isolation and facilitate the formation of new species o Character displacement: occur if competition over food, mates or other resources increases the morphological differences between the immigrants and the residents
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