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ANTB19H3 (15)

Key Concepts

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Donna Young

ANTB19- Concepts 1) Film: Ongkas Big Moka: this movie showed the way of gift giving. So if a pig was given to sum1, they wud get it back with interest. 2) Economics: concrete set of activities and organizations through which a society patterns the flow of goods and services. 3) 4 principles of economics: A) humans need goods and services (individual needs vary). B) Goods and services have multiple uses. C) Goods and services are scarce. D) Obtaining goods and services requires an expenditure of energy which is limited. 4) Economic anthropology: analysis practise of motivation behind and meanings attached to exchange. They relate other cultural ideas and structures to economic systems. For example, Kinship, gender etc... They also look at the beliefs of these economic exchanges. Not just non-Western practises, they also look at Western capitalist practices. For anthropologist capitalist system is no more natural than any other exchange system. They will not assume that capitals are just what they are. This became an area of study in the 1960s 5) Malinowski: made early efforts on economic anthropology. Anthropologists have found out that economics has an effect on the society. - It was since him that anthropologists figured economic systems r interlinked with other systems - 1922- Argonauts of the Western Pacific There was sense of social evolution Economists arguing that trade in primitive societies was simple n haphazard Malinowski believed it was ethnocentric Cuz Tobriands had many activities that cud be described economic 6) Gimwali: a kind of market exchange such as pigs, vegetable and other foods were traded and people could bargain for better deals. 7) Laga: payment for magical prayer performed by non-relatives. 8) Pokaka: payment for magical prayer performed by relatives or a kind of tribute paid to a superior usually in yams or some similar food items. These are exchanges. 9) Kula exchange: exchange of necklaces n hand bands made of shell - jewellery traded among chiefs, had no utilitarian value www.notesolution.com ANTB19- Concepts o no practical value but a mens symbolic value cuz it confirms the status n political presence of ppl exchanging - when the trade took place the islands were not close to each other. There were long and dangerous voyages to change to the village chiefs. They don`t have value but it means symbolic value it was symbolic because it showed the status of the people who were involved in this exchange. Malinowski argued that the kula exchange partners have demonstrated the following: a) mutual obligation between partners b) complex organization for the exchange c) behaviour that is rational within its own context or society. One major point to remember is generosity was a virtue; tobrianders gave in order to posses; in order to get the necklaces they had to be in the exchange. The opposition of this happens in the western states for example if i want to get rich I dont have to give what i have. Kula- economic? - Required organized work with particular aims - Desire for wealth n ownership - Concept of credit - Canoe building o Investment of time n energy supporting the infrastructure of trade - Financing of voyages - Quote by Malinowski: Kula is at a border line between the commercial n the ceremonial - Economics overlap with religion, kinship, etc. - All economies do this, we tend not to recognize them - Ex: with religion: any church will have ideas abt how moral it is to make money, to be greedy, to give money to church 10) Karl Marx: huge influence in a variety of fields. He was unhappy with the philosophers he wanted to tell about the time not exchange, he wanted to change the world. Fredrick Engles and Marx wrote `the communist manifesto``. He wrote a book titled `` capital`` he did a detailed analysis of work in Britain. This was during the industrial revolution a lot of factory worker, mining at this time, long hours no pay, child labour. The pay they got did not help them live happily. They did not have enough money to meet their basic necessities ppl died working. People moved from lands and into the cities. He did not like what he saw so he wanted to change this. And it www.notesolution.com
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