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ANTC62H3 (6)
Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Larry Sawchuk

C62Chapter 1Epidemiology originates from Hippocrates observation more than 2000 years ago thatenvironmental factors influence the occurrence of disease However it was not untilthe nineteenth century that the distribution of disease in specific human populationgroups was measured to any large extentEpidemiology in its modern form is a relatively new discipline1 and uses quantitativemethods to study diseases in human populations to inform prevention and control effortsThe British doctors cohort has also shown a progressive decrease in death rates among nonsmokers over subsequent decades Male doctors born between 19001930 smoked cigarettes died on average about 10 years younger than lifelong nonsmokersIn low and middleincome countries where HIVAIDS tuberculosis and malaria are common causes of death communicable disease epidemiology is of vital importanceEpidemiology as defined by Last is the study of the distribution and determinants of healthrelated states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to the prevention and control of health problemsA common population used in epidemiology is one selected from a specific area or country at a specific timeThis forms the base for defining subgroups with respect to sex age group or ethnicity The structures of populations vary between geographical areas and time periods Epidemiological analyses must take such variation into accountDefinition of
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