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Lecture2.ANTC68.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTC68H3
Professor
Bryce
Semester
Winter

Description
History of EpidemiologyHippocrates 460377 BCE o Greek PhysicianFather of Medicine o Adhered to the principles of OBSERVATION in medicine o Believed in HUMORAL theoryYellow BileFireBloodAirPhlegmWaterBlack BileEarth o Disease comes from an imbalance in nature anything that upsets the humours holistic o Thought that LOCATION was very important in determining disease outcomes o Recognized seasonality of epidemics and treatments o Also believed in miasma bad air as a cause of diseaseAnton van Leeuwenhoek 16231723 o Father of microbiologyo Visualized bacteria under the lends of a rudimentary microscope o Important precursor germ theoryJohn Graunt 16201674 o One of the first not the only one to analyze Londons Bills of Mortality 1662 o Recognized seasonality of epidemics o Methods were rudimentary by todays standards but recognizing the need for numerical observation is key o The Bills of Mortality began late 1500s after the plague important source of demographic info SearchersSearchers are old woman that would go district to district to figure out how many died of whatEdward Jenner 17491823 o Father of IMMUNOLOGY o 1796 inoculated gardeners son with pus from milkmaids cowpox blisters o Injected boy with pus from an active small pox patient and boy was immune o Vaccination eventually led to eradication of smallpoxJohn Snow 18131858 o Father of epidemiology and anesthesiology o August 1854 London was experiencing yet another cholera epidemico Didnt believe in miasma theory thought cholera was spread by drinking water contaminated with fecal waste o Went door to door to ask where cholera cases were SHOE LEATHER EPIDEMIOLOGY o Cause of epidemicbroad street pump removed HANDLE o No one believed him because cholera deaths were already declining people were a fan of the miasma theory no disease agent found until 1883 by KochVictorian London
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