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Farmer1999a.Week9.ANTC68.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTC68H3
Professor
Bryce
Semester
Winter

Description
ANTC68 WINTER 2013 Week # 9: “Rethinking Emerging Infectious Diseases by Farmer 1999a  Renewed interest in epidemics and new and newly virulent pathogens  We have technologies that give us greater detail and insight in their processes and methods of pathogens  Explosion of emerging infectious diseases o Some are actually new such as AIDS and Brazilian purpuric fever o Some were previously identified and only lately have burst on the scene again in a dramatic fashion – Hantaan viruses, Ebola, Lyme Disease o Others are ancient still and somehow changed recently in pathogenicity or distribution – flesh eating bacteria  Ecological and economic transformations are leading to the increased contact between humans and vectors  Popularizing the concept of “emerging infectious diseases” has been useful in mobilizing public and private will and resources to combat these diseases that are usually halted by large bureaucracies, there is a sense of urgency  There are symbolic burdens to emerging infectious diseases o These are ancient diseases sometimes so are they “emerging” cause all of a sudden we care more?  We need more epistemology – the reflexive study of processes, units of analysis and key terms  Causative Co factors: ecological changes, economic development, climate change, demographic changes and behavior, travel and commerce, technology and industry, microbial adaptation and change and breakdown of public health measures  Human actions have played a larger role in ENHANCING pathogenicity or increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents – anthropogenesis of disease emergence  We need a CRITICAL epistemology of emerging diseases o We need to develop certain sensitivity to the terms we are used to  Reduction of poverty in addition improve housing, land drainage, (electric fans, nets, mosquito repellants for malaria)  Tropical disease is a term that must be critiqued because once long ago malaria the tropical disease has also affected US by a large part – implies a geographic rather than SOCIAL topography o Health Transitions – nation states as they develop go through predictable epidemiologic transformations  Go from infectious to more non communicable diseases and causes of mortality  However, there are differentials within nationalities of morbidity and mortality and it is more a function of local inequalities than nationality o Units of Analysis  The dynamics of a disease emergence is not captured on a nation by station analyses any more than the diseases are contained by national boundaries Body  The limitation of these three important ways of viewing the health of populations – the concepts of tropical medicine, health transitions and national health profiles demonstrate that models and even assumptions about infectious diseases need to be DYNAMIC, SYSTEMIC and CRITICAL  Need to relate the microbial phenomena to greater social forces that shape the contours of disease emergence o World bank policies linked to the spread of HIV for example  Study of anything emerging needs to be dynamic o We need to pay attention to the underlying social-historical influences on behavioral choices, patterns and population health  Systemic analyses of disease emergence are not hemmed in by political or administrative borders  Critical and self-critical approach - would ask how existing frameworks might limit our ability to discern trends that are related to the emergence of diseases ANTC68 WINTER 2013 o Would push the limits to existing academic politesse and ask more difficult and rarely raised questions  How have international changes in agriculture shaped recent outbreaks of Argentine and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever  Institutional racism and MDRTB in New York prisons
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