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ANTC99 (primate evolution) fossil apes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mary Silcox

Fossil Apes All modern apes traits:  Long forelimbs  Dorsally placed scapula  Rounded/globular humeral head  Ulnar styloid is reduced  Short olecranon process  Spool-shaped trochlea  Round radial head  Long curved fingers  Broad thorax  Short non-flexible lumbar region (suspensory movement)  Broad femoral condyles (flexible knee)  No tail  Large brain (compared to old world monkeys)  Broad nasal region  Molar cusps are bunodont  Upper teeth quadrate but not bilophodont. Species Location/Epoch Diet Locomotion Taxonomy Proconsul Early Miocene, Frugivorous  low bunodont Intermembral index = 86.9 Ape traits  brain capacity is 167cc, 6 species Africa cusps, poor shearing crests, Hind and fore limbs are Elbow articulation (sloop-shaped Proconsul Rusinga Island, sturdy incisors similar in size trochlea, large medial epicondyle, heseloni Kenya Not suspensory small olecranon process), no tail (the 17 – 18.5 mya Probably Slow-climbing proconsul’s distal sacrum has a v- arboreal quadruped shaped basal cleft) Lack of brow ridges (basal hominoid) It is most likely a basal/stem hominoid Morotopithecus Early Miocene Frugivorous Suspensory Either a stem hominoid or a stem bishopi Moroto, Uganda Low-crowned bunodont Caudally oriented spinous great ape Africa Broadly opened incisive process Suspensory, broad femoral condyles, 20.6 mya or 17 foramen Transverse process arises transvers process from pedicle mya from the base of the Family: proconsulidae pedicle Fossil Apes Pierolapithecus Middle Miocene Thick enamel Suspensory locomotion The ancestor of all great apes Catalaunicus 12.5 – 13 mya, Lacks frontal sinus Vertebrae in intermediate Family: hominidae Spain to chimp and baboon Subfamily: dryopithecinae 83 bones The rib cage wider – broad Other features include: Broad chest chest and long face No articulation between styloid process of the ulna and triquetrum at the wrist Short digits (odd) Has os centrale in wrist Dryopithecines/ Mid-late Frugivorous Humeral shaft is long and Family: hominidae Rudapithecus Miocene, Europe Bulbous cusps, small cingulate slender Subfamily: dryopithecinae and cingulids, robust mandible, Digits are long and curved thin enamel and gracile canines Hispanopithecus 9.5 mya Reduced olecranon Family: hominidae late miocene process of ulna Subfamily: dryopithecinae Can Llobateres Deep humeral trochlea Spain Long hands Has brow ridges and a prominent Short lumbar vertebrae – glabella transverse processes Common ancestor or great apes arises from pedicle Long forelimbs and short femora – suspensory Chororapithecus Late Miocene Folivorous diet Thought to be an extant gorilla abyssinicus 10
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