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ANTC99 - Early anthropoids.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mary Silcox

Lecture seven – Early anthropoids NWM Platyrrhini Anthropoid traits (humans, apes, and monkeys) Fused metopic suture (new world monkeys Cercopithecoidea Hominoidea Postorbital closure * 3 premolars) (old world monkeys) (apes and humans) Retinal fovea ( cones and no bv– dirurnal) not nocturnal * Lack tapetum lucidum (used for night vision) * Upper molars have hypocones Fused mandibular symphysis stem platyrrhines Premolar morphology Catarrhini (2 premolars) Middle ear pneumatization Loss of stapedial artery Semimolariform P &4obliquely oriented premolar roots stem catarrhines Canines are larger than incisors & canines are dimorphic Incisors are spatulate Anthropoidea Molar trigonids and talonids are subequal in height Deep mandible * Anterior accessory cavity * stem anthropoids Haplorhine nose (dry nose with lack of a gap in incisors) * Hemochorial placenta (organized and better blood flow) * Tarsiers have some intermediate anthropoid traits such as a slightly incomplete postorbital closure, the stepedial artery is there but shorter. Fayum of Egypt have many early anthropoids which are found from the Eocene and Oligocene during this time the Fayum was filled with mangrove forests, which is an ideal environment for early anthropoids. The Quarry I blows away dirt and showing the desert pavement (rocks) these pieces are swept away to reveal the layer underneath the cycle continues and under the guidance of Elwyn Simons many fossils have been found. Species Diet Locomotion & activity pattern Taxonomy Apidium Dental formula: Diurnal Suborder: Anthropoidea (3 species) Frugivorous Short snout, small infraorbital foramen, Superfamily: Parapithecoidea Jebel Qatrani Thick enamel and small eyes Family: Parapithecidae Formation Tiny incisors Quadruped leapers (hindlimbs and Genus: Apidum A.bowni (quarry V) Moderate size longer than forelimbs, intermembral A.moustafai (quarry G) Sexually dimorphic canines index 70) Stem anthropoid Early oligocene Molars with low, rounded cusps Femoral condyles are deep 36 – 32 mya Fused mandibular symphysis Tibia is long and fibula is firmly attached P is not semimolariform Hinged ankle joint – flexion and 4 extension Lecture seven – Early anthropoids NWM Proteopithecus sylviae Diet of fruit and insects Diurnal small orbits Suborder: Anthropoidea Late Eocene Dental formula: Postorbital closure  high visual acuity Superfamily: Parapithecoidea Small incisors arboreal Quadrupedal running and Family: Proteopithecidae Sexually dimorphic canines leaping Short P4 Leaping behavior is probably not as Stem platyrrhine or stem Broad Bunodont molars specialized as apidium anthropoid Tall trigonid Paraconid M 1 Upper molars have hypocone Aegyptopithecus zeuxis Frugivorous Small orbits  diurnal Infraorder: Catarrhini Uppermost quarries in Robust arboreal quadruped Superfamily: Propliopithecoidea the Fayum Narrow incisors, lower molars Grasping hallux Family: Propliopithecidae Males Early Oligocene with large cusps, Long olecranon process in ulna have a pronounced sagittal Sexually dimorphic canines crest and large nuchal crests Large premaxillary bone Lack stapedial artery Shearing complex in a drill No body tube (OWM) for sharpening upper Anthropoid traits: fused canine mandibular symphysis, Lack bilophodont molars postorbital closure, lacrimal bone within orbit) Oligopithecus Dental formula Infraorder: Catarrhini Late Eocene M1 has a paraconid Superfamily: Propliopithecoidea Egypt, Oman (quarry E) Deep mandible Family: Oligopithecus High trigonid & small paraconid Premolar is similar to Hypoconulid is present propliopithcids Catopithecus browni Diet of fruit, insects, and leaves Orbit size – diurnal Has an unfused mandibular Quarry L-41 High shearing quotient Large premaxillary bone symphysis Medium sized (600 – 900g) Arboreal quadruped Anthropoid: fused frontal bone, Dental formula complete postorbital closure, Canines are sexually dimorphic large promontory artery, Upper molars have hypocones anterior cavity of the ear and platyrrine ectotympanic ring Eosimias Teeth lack most anthropoid traits Small orbits – diurnal Suborder: anthropoidea Shanghuang China Have vertically implanted Has an unfused mandibular symphysis Family: Eosimiidae Middle eocene incisors with obliquely oriented Primitive stem anthropoids 45 mya premolar roots, a deep mandible Lecture seven – Early anthropoids NWM Darwinius masillae Stomach contents had leaves and Low intermembral index Superfamily: Adapoidea 47 mya seeds Long hindlimbs Family: Caenopithecidae adapoid from Herbivorous diet Some leaping behavior  arboreal Messel Germany quadruped Eocene Large orbit size  nocturnal Darwinius masillae This fossil is well preserved from Germany (Messel) It was well preserved because it was preserved oil shale (lake with active volcanic activity underneath) The two halves are split between the rocks they look symmetrical but this is wrong some bones have been added to make it more complete Females don’t have an os baculum (penis bone) Haplorhine traits Strepsirrhine traits Spatulate teeth (no toothcomb) No septum Fused mandibular symphysis May have had a long snout, it is hard to tell in this specimen because Deep mandible it is a juvenile Short snout (unclear) It is difficult to tell if there was actually no grooming claw because
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