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Art History
Roger Mc Cleary

New Medium, new style 2012-09-25 7:58 PM READING ANNOTATION – “Bronze Casting In Early 5 thCentury BC” • The problem that arose for the accomplished naturalism of the Aristodikos, the last of the kouroi, was that the pose began to look stiff • The first sculpture to change the pose for the statue “Kri tios Boy”, made shortly before the Persian sack of Athens in 480BC  the head is turned slightly and the weight has shifted to his back leg • Physical changes are small, but the statue has come to life • Had to make four radically new drawings • It would be easier to experiment with a new pose if the statue were cast in bronze instead of carved from metal  walk around and change as he went along, then cover the model with a clay mould that is strong enough to withstand molten metal. The wax is then melted out, a nd molten bronze is poured into the gap to fill the gap that has emerged between the mould and model. After the bronze has cooled, the mould was chipped away and the bronze figure was smoothed and finished • Marble is heavy and could break on its own weight (extended arm would break under its own weight) • The Kritios boy was made in a critical year for the Athenians • 480 BC Persians sacked the city •  one of the last wars between the Greeks and Persians because the next year, the Greeks defeated the Persians • The Athenians then returned to their city to rebuild • The Kritios boy was found buried; head and body separated • The head shows that the sculpture might’ve been looking at the bronze statue as a gui hair was in scratched lines READING ANNOTATION – “Two Basic Elevations: The Doric and Ionic Orders” • Greek temples were constructed based on the post -and-lintel principles: vertical posts support horizontal lintels • Earliest temples were build of wood and mid -brick on stone foundations • Stone began to be preferre d by the end of the 7 century BC • Wall blocks were laid dry without motar • Coarse limestones were coated with plaster to give the appearance of an even surface • Marble was finely smoothed • Columns were erected similarly, and fluted – vertical channels were carved in the shafts • Columns supported a horizontal entablature (the superstructure supported by columns) consisting of architrave (a lintel/beam carried from the top of one column to another, frieze (horizontal band of stones resting on top of the architrave – Doric friezes are divided into triglyphs and metopes; Ionic freizes are continuous), and projecting cornice (the topmost member of an entablature) --- pg.26 diagram • Each entablature was designed to belong to either Doric or Ionic order; mixing the tw o was rare before the Hellenistic period The Doric Order o Strong, simple, massive o Column shafts were sturdy, but not extremely tall, and rested directly ostylobate (top step of a temple; the platform on which the columns and walls rest) o Capitals (top part of a column, crowning the shaft and supporting the architrave) were topped by an undecorated square abacus (topmost part of the capital), which supported a plain, individed architrave o This in turn supported the frieze, which was divided into alternat ing triglyphs (vertically grooved member of the Doric frieze) and metopes (stone of terracotta panels alternating with triglyphs in the Doric order) o There was one triglyph over each column and one between each pair of columns The Ionic Order o More delicate and ornate o Slender column shafts that range in height and rested on elaborate bases (bottom of the column) that consisted of at least two convex parts and one convace o Capitals curve over to the right and left and end in volutes (spiral scrolls curving to the right and left decorating front and backs of Ionic capitals), surmounted by a thin, carved abacus, on which rests the architrave, often divided into three horizontal bands o Triple divison subtly reflects 3 steps on which the temple usually stands o Frieze is undivided and sometimes decorated by a continuous band of relief
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