BIOA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Chief Operating Officer, Monomer, Covalent Bond

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x Energy is consumed making a polymer
x The reverse is a hydrolysis reaction t a water molecule is used to break the covalent bonds
between the monomers
x Energy is released
x Most molecules are polymers and are present in all organisms in roughly the same proportions
3.2 What are the chemical structures and functions of proteins?
x Function of proteins: structural support, protection, transport, catalysis, defence, regulation,
and movement
x Proteins are made from 20 different amino acids
x All proteins consist of a polypeptide chain t single unbranched chain of amino acids
x The composition of a protein: relative amounts of each amino acid present
x The sequence of amino acids in the chain determines the protein structure and function
x Amino acids have carboxyl and amino groups t they function as both acid and base
x dZ๎€ž๎€ƒ๎€‚u]v}๎€ƒ๎€‚๎€]๎€š[๎‚๎€ƒr-carbon is asymmetrical; therefore there are two kinds of amino acids L- and
D-. Only L- are found in organisms.
x The side chains or R-groups also have functional groups
x Amino acids are grouped based on these side chains
o Electrically charged
๎‚ƒ Arginine
๎‚ƒ Histidine
๎‚ƒ Lysine
๎‚ƒ Aspartic Acid
๎‚ƒ Glutamic Acid
o Polar not uncharged (hydrophilic)
๎‚ƒ Serine
๎‚ƒ Threonine
๎‚ƒ Asparagine
๎‚ƒ Glutamine
๎‚ƒ Tyrosine
o Nonpolar (hydrophobic)
๎‚ƒ Alanine
๎‚ƒ Isoleucine
๎‚ƒ Leucine
๎‚ƒ Methionine
๎‚ƒ Phenylalanine
๎‚ƒ Tryptophan
๎‚ƒ Valine
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Document Summary

N the reverse is a hydrolysis reaction j a water molecule is used to break the covalent bonds between the monomers. N most molecules are polymers and are present in all organisms in roughly the same proportions. N function of proteins: structural support, protection, transport, catalysis, defence, regulation, and movement. N proteins are made from 20 different amino acids. N all proteins consist of a polypeptide chain j single unbranched chain of amino acids. N the composition of a protein: relative amounts of each amino acid present. N the sequence of amino acids in the chain determines the protein structure and function. N amino acids have carboxyl and amino groups j they function as both acid and base. zh-carbon is asymmetrical; therefore there are two kinds of amino acids l- and. N the side chains or r-groups also have functional groups. N amino acids are grouped based on these side chains: electrically charged.

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