BIOA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Chief Operating Officer, Monomer, Covalent Bond
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x Energy is consumed making a polymer
x The reverse is a hydrolysis reaction t a water molecule is used to break the covalent bonds
between the monomers
x Energy is released
x Most molecules are polymers and are present in all organisms in roughly the same proportions
3.2 What are the chemical structures and functions of proteins?
x Function of proteins: structural support, protection, transport, catalysis, defence, regulation,
x Proteins are made from 20 different amino acids
x All proteins consist of a polypeptide chain t single unbranched chain of amino acids
x The composition of a protein: relative amounts of each amino acid present
x The sequence of amino acids in the chain determines the protein structure and function
x Amino acids have carboxyl and amino groups t they function as both acid and base
x dZu]v}][r-carbon is asymmetrical; therefore there are two kinds of amino acids L- and
D-. Only L- are found in organisms.
x The side chains or R-groups also have functional groups
x Amino acids are grouped based on these side chains
o Electrically charged
o Polar not uncharged (hydrophilic)
o Nonpolar (hydrophobic)
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