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BIOA01H3 (200)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Mark Fitzpatrick
Chapter
4

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BIOA01 t LEC 02 CHAPTER 4
CELL STRUCTURE
x All life on earth as we know it and all the evidence from the life that has been here in the past,
comes from a common ancestor t we share a lot of characteristics in common t elephant,
human, or bacteria
HOW IS ALL LIKE ON EARTH RELATED?
x All life on earth consists of organized cells
o Takes energy just because of the fact that they are organized
x All organisms contain heritable genetic information for reproduction
o Important for evolution
o If the organism is able to survive, they are able to reproduce and pass down its genetic
information
o Ultimately the mandate from a biological standpoint is to live long enough to reproduce
x All organisms show growth and development
o Ex. Human egg Æ Human
x All organisms respond environmental stimuli
o Ex. Some plants excrete chemicals to keep away pests, organisms and illuminate
practises
o Ex. Sunflowers moving towards the sun
x All organisms maintain homeostasis
o These organisms that are constructed of cells are capable of controlling and regulating
their internal environment to optimize the functioning of the cell, enzymes, chemicals,
etc
o Ex. Extremophiles t lives in extreme temperatures, pH levels, etc. t possibility of life in
outer space
x All organisms use matter and energy from its external environment and converts it into material
to support the life of that organism t metabolism: using food, light, or chemical energy to help
an organism do what they need to do
o Part of the growth t taking external nutrients and make it part of you
x Organisms are capable of adapting to their environmental changes t evolution through natural
selection
o This can ensure survival and reproduction
CELL STRUCTURE
x Cells
Characterized by a membrane made up of phospholipids t cell
membrane/plasma membrane/plasmalema
Basic unit of life
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