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Chapter 1

BIOA01H3 Chapter 1: BIOA01H3 (Module 2)

6 pages79 viewsFall 2018

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Mark Fitzpatrick

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Biology (Textbook): Module 2
Cell Biology &
Chapter 1
 
Chapter Breakdown
Chemistry and Physics Theories of
Cell Structure Outline
Core Concepts
1. Fundamental theories of chemistry
and physics which create the basis of
a cell.
2. Basic unit of life, the cell.
3. Characteristic similarities and
differences between organisms,
through an evolutionary lens.
4. Interaction of organisms in a physical
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The Chemical and Physical Context
of Life
1. Matter
anything that takes up
space and has mass.
2. Element
: substance in its pure and
individual form, which cannot be
be further broken down in a
chemical reaction.
3. Compound
: substance made up of
two or more elements in a fixed
4. Atom
: the smallest unit of matter,
made up of protons (positive
charges), neutrons (neutral
charges) and electrons (negative
Chemical elements make up the living
and the nonliving; and follow the two
laws of thermodynamics (which deal
with characteristics of energy):
First Law of Thermodynamics: energy
cannot be created or destroyed; it can
only be transformed. (The total amount
of energy remains the same before or
after its transformation.)
Second Law of Thermodynamics: as
energy is added to a system, it tends to
move towards chaos - moving from order
to disorder; linked to the idea of
movement and change that takes place
when energy is added to a system - the
entropy of the system.
What is Life?
Characteristics of living things:
1. Order of chemical systems to
regulate the body
2. Response to environment 
3. Reproduction and growth
4. Ability to adapt/ evolve
Theories on the Origin of Life
- Italian Physician
and naturalist
Francesco Redi
- 1629-1697
- Hypothesis
Maggots and flies
found on meat,
unattendant over a period of time, come
from other flies and maggot and not
spontaneously generated.
- Experiment
1. In three different jars a piece of
meat was placed
2. The first jar was kept open, the
second jar was covered with
gauze, and the third was closed
with lid. ( The first jar allowed air
and flies, the second only air, the
third did not allow air or flies.)
3. Wait several days.
- Observations
1. Open jar: Maggots appeared
(access to flies).
2. Gauze covered jar: No maggots
appeared (no access to flies).
3. Close lid jar: No maggots
appeared (no access to flies).
- Conclusion: Flies come from other flies.
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