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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Study Guide

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Mark Fitzpatrick

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Chapter 1 Studying Life
Living organisms consist of cells
-unicellular-> a single cell that carries out all the functions of life
-multi-cellular-> a number of cells that are specialized for different functions
-spontaneous generation-> life arises from non-life
-Pasteur-> life must be present in order for life to be generated
->germ theory of disease
Cell Theory
-all cells come from pre-existing cells
-all cells are similar in chemical composition
-most of the chemical reactions of life occur within cells
-complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed no during cell division
The diversity of life is due to evolution by Natural Selection
-living organism are described from common ancestor, relate to one another
-species-> group of organism that are morphologically similar
-> can breed successfully with one another
-natural selection-> trait that increases probability of survival and reproduction is favoured and
spread in the population
- Adaptation- traits that enhance an organism’s chances of survival & reproduction
Biological information is contained in a genetic language common to all organisms
-genome-> the sum total of all DNA molecules in the cell
-gene-> specific segment of DNA
-> contain information the cells use to make proteins
-mutation-> caused by radiation
->most are deleterious
->beneficial mutation lead to evolution
Cells use nutrients to supply energy and to build new structures
-capture energy in chemical bond of nutrient
-take in nutrient & break them down
-2 functions of cells
-1) synthesis-> build complex molecules from smaller chemical unit, carbohydrate are turned to
-2) mechanical work-> move molecules from one location to another
Living organism control their internal environment
-multi-cellular cells have internal environment that is not cellular
->individual cells are bathed in the extracellular fluids for the purpose of receiving nutrient &
excreting wastes
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