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Chapter 3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life
What Kinds of Molecules characterize Living Things?
-polymer-> covalent bonding of smaller molecules called monomers
-macromolecules-> polymers with molecular weight exceeding 1000 i.e. protein, polysaccharide,
nucleic acid
Functional groups give specific properties to molecules
-functional groups are small groups of atoms that have specific chemical properties
-when attached to molecules, the functional group exhibits specific chemical properties on the
large molecules
Isomers have different arrangements of the same atoms
-isomers are molecules that have the same kind and number of atom, but are arranged differently
-structural isomers differ in how their atoms are joined together
-optical isomers-> molecules that are mirror image of each other
The structure of macromolecules reflect their functions
-nucleic acid stores information
->hereditary material that carries traits of species from generation to generation
-macromolecules contain many different functional groups
Most macromolecules are formed by condensation and broken down by hydrolysis
-condensation (dehydration) -> two monomers join together to form polymer with the release of
water
->energy is needed in condensation
-hydrolysis-> water is needed to break the covalent bond of polymer and form two monomers as
product
What are the Chemical structure and Functions of Proteins?
-Functions of proteins are structural support, protection, transport, catalysis, defence, regulation,
movement
-monomer of protein is amino acid
-polymer of amino acid is called a polypeptide chain
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins
-amino acids have carboxyl (COOH-) and amino (NH-) functional groups
-as amino acid contains both carboxyl and amino groups, it is both a base and acid
-carbon atom in amino acid attaches to the side chain (R group)
-carbon atom is asymmetrical because it attaches to 4 different atoms
-optical isomer, one is D-amino acid and the other is L-amino acids
-L-amino acids are the common ones found in organisms
-R groups contain different functional groups that determine the 3-dimenstion al shape and
function
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Document Summary

Chapter 3 macromolecules and the origin of life. Polymer-> covalent bonding of smaller molecules called monomers. Macromolecules-> polymers with molecular weight exceeding 1000 i. e. protein, polysaccharide, nucleic acid. Functional groups are small groups of atoms that have specific chemical properties. When attached to molecules, the functional group exhibits specific chemical properties on the large molecules. Isomers have different arrangements of the same atoms. Isomers are molecules that have the same kind and number of atom, but are arranged differently. Structural isomers differ in how their atoms are joined together. Optical isomers-> molecules that are mirror image of each other. >hereditary material that carries traits of species from generation to generation. Most macromolecules are formed by condensation and broken down by hydrolysis. Condensation (dehydration) -> two monomers join together to form polymer with the release of water. Hydrolysis-> water is needed to break the covalent bond of polymer and form two monomers as product.

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