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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Study Guide

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Mark Fitzpatrick

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Chapter 3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life
What Kinds of Molecules characterize Living Things?
-polymer-> covalent bonding of smaller molecules called monomers
-macromolecules-> polymers with molecular weight exceeding 1000 i.e. protein, polysaccharide,
nucleic acid
Functional groups give specific properties to molecules
-functional groups are small groups of atoms that have specific chemical properties
-when attached to molecules, the functional group exhibits specific chemical properties on the
large molecules
Isomers have different arrangements of the same atoms
-isomers are molecules that have the same kind and number of atom, but are arranged differently
-structural isomers differ in how their atoms are joined together
-optical isomers-> molecules that are mirror image of each other
The structure of macromolecules reflect their functions
-nucleic acid stores information
->hereditary material that carries traits of species from generation to generation
-macromolecules contain many different functional groups
Most macromolecules are formed by condensation and broken down by hydrolysis
-condensation (dehydration) -> two monomers join together to form polymer with the release of
->energy is needed in condensation
-hydrolysis-> water is needed to break the covalent bond of polymer and form two monomers as
What are the Chemical structure and Functions of Proteins?
-Functions of proteins are structural support, protection, transport, catalysis, defence, regulation,
-monomer of protein is amino acid
-polymer of amino acid is called a polypeptide chain
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins
-amino acids have carboxyl (COOH-) and amino (NH-) functional groups
-as amino acid contains both carboxyl and amino groups, it is both a base and acid
-carbon atom in amino acid attaches to the side chain (R group)
-carbon atom is asymmetrical because it attaches to 4 different atoms
-optical isomer, one is D-amino acid and the other is L-amino acids
-L-amino acids are the common ones found in organisms
-R groups contain different functional groups that determine the 3-dimenstion al shape and
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