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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Study Guide

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Mark Fitzpatrick

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Chapter 11 DNA and Its Role in Heredity
Evidence that Gene is DNA
Frederick Griffith
-developed transforming principle
-living S strain when injected in the mouse can result in death
-living R strain is not harmful
-heated (deformed) S strain is injected, mouse remains healthy
-but when heated S strain is mixed with R strain and injected in the mouse, the mouse is dead
-it suggests that cells in R strain are able to transform cells in S strain genetically and cause it to
become active
Oswald Avery
-stated when DNA of molecules is destroyed, transforming principle is lost as well
-added RNase, protease, and DNase separately to the titrated heated S strain and R strain mixture
-the mixture where DNase is added results in R strain bacteria only, S strain is gone
->DNase destroys the DNA in S strain, preventing it from transforming to functioning cells
-the mixture where RNase and protease are added result in both S and R strain
-this proves DNA is the transforming substance
Hershey-Chase Experiment
-used bacteriophage T2 to determine whether DNA or protein is the genetic material
-bacteriophage with
S proteins and
P DNA are used to easily trace their location
-bacteriophage is mixed with bacteria and only DNA is found inside the bacterial cell
-Transfection-> genetic transformation of eukaryotic cells
->genetic marker is used to yield a specific phenotype
-transformed gene can only grow when DNA is present
Structure of DNA
-determined using X-ray crystallography, position of atoms can be determined using pattern of
X-ray diffraction
-DNA is polymer of nucleotide, which is composed of phosphate group, deoxyribose (5 ringed
sugar), and nitrogenous base
-2 types of nitrogenous base
1) Purine-> Adenine (A), Guanine (G) double ring, larger in size
2) Pyrimidine-> Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) single ring
Erwin Chargaff
-Chargaff’s rule-> number of purine equals to number of pyrimidine
Linus Pauling
-started 3-D model building of molecular structure
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