Textbook Notes (380,823)
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BIOA01H3 (202)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes (from textbook)

5 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Mark Fitzpatrick

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Chapter 1 Notes
Biology: the scientific study of living things
Living Things: all the organisms that descended from a single celled ancestor.
Biological science was developed through:
ooZ}ÇW
o cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms &
o cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms
o All cells come from preexisting cells
o All cells are similar in chemical composition
o Most of the chemical reactions in life occur within cells
o Complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division
x Theory of evolution by natural selection
o Evolution- a central theme
o Living systems evolve through differential survival and reproduction
o Humans select for desired traits when breeding animals
o Darwin said that natural selection could happen through survival and reproductive success
o Natural selection leads to adaptation
o Conditions for natural selection are:
x Individuals in the population vary in inheritable characteristics
x Certain versions of the characteristics lead to better survival or reproduction
compared to other version
o If certain traits lead to higher success in producing offspring, the trait becomes more
common in the population over time
o Natural selection acts on individuals but evolutionary change on effect populations
x Four nucleotides (C, G, T & A) are the building blocks of DNA; repeating subunits
x DNA is made of 2 strands of linked sequences of nucleotides; the information that is passed form
parent to daughter cells
x Genome sum total of all the DNA in a cell
x All cells in a multicellular organism have the same genome.
x A gene is made of s specific sequences of nucleotides (a part of DNA); contains information for
making proteins
x Mutations are alterations in the nucleotide sequence
x The nucleotide sequence in a gene contains the information to build a specific protein
x Molecules are made of atoms
x Cells of many types are working parts of organism
www.notesolution.com
x Tissues are a group of cells with similar and coordinated functions
x Organs combine tissues and organs form systems
Screen clipping taken: 10/31/2010, 10:10 PM
Characteristics of living organisms:
x Made of 1 or more cells
x Contain genetic info
x Use genetic info to reproduce
x Are genetically related and evolve
x Can convert molecules from their environment in the new biological molecules
x Can obtain energy from the environment to do work
x Can regulate their internal environment
Unicellular organism: a single cell carries out all the functions of life
Multicelluar organisms: made of many cells that are specialized for different functions
For 2 billion years life consisted of single celled - prokaryotes
These cells were in the oceans, protected from UV radiation
Eukaryotes are organisms contain their genetic material inside a nucleus. It includes all life asides
from viruses, archea and bacteria .
Prokaryotic - lack membrane enclosed organelles
Eukaryotic - have membrane enclosed organelles
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 1 Notes Biology: the scientific study of living things Living Things: all the organisms that descended from a single celled ancestor. Biological science was developed through: ooZ}9 o cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms & o cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms o All cells come from preexisting cells o All cells are similar in chemical composition o Most of the chemical reactions in life occur within cells o Complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division N Theory of evolution by natural selection o Evolution- a central theme o Living systems evolve through differential survival and reproduction o Humans select for desired traits when breeding animals o Darwin said that natural selection could happen through survival and reproductive success o Natural selection leads to adaptation o Conditions for natural selection are: N Individuals in the population vary in inheritable characteristics N Certain versions of the characteristics lead to better survival or reproduction compared to other version o If certain traits lead to higher success in producing offspring, the trait becomes more common in the population over time o Natural selection acts on individuals but evolutionary change on effect populations N Four nucleotides (C, G, T & A) are the building blocks of DNA; repeating subunits N DNA is made of 2 strands of linked sequences of nucleotides; the information that is passed form parent to daughter cells N Genome sum total of all the DNA in a cell N All cells in a multicellular organism have the same genome. N A gene is made of s specific sequences of nucleotides (a part of DNA); contains information for making proteins N Mutations are alterations in the nucleotide sequence N The nucleotide sequence in a gene contains the information to build a specific protein N Molecules are made of atoms N Cells of many types are working parts of organism www.notesolution.com
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