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BIOA01H3 (202)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 to 11

11 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Mark Fitzpatrick

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Chapter 4 Cell Structure
Cell Theory Basic units of life
All organisms are composed of cells
All cells come from pre-existing cells
Cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
-Lack membrane-enclosed organelles
-Loosely organized in nucleiod regions in cytoplasm
-Have plasma membrane and ribosomes
-Cell wall gives support
Eukaryotes
-Have internal cytoskeleton for support
-Have membrane-enclosed organelles
Process information
Nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes
Control function
Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus,
lysosomes/vacuoles
Process energy
Mitochondria, Chloroplasts
Provide structure
Cytoskeleton, extracellular components
-Formation led to increase in size and complexity
www.notesolution.com
-How? Infolding of cell membrane, endosymbiosis of membrane-bound
organelles
Chapter 3 - Macromolecules
Amino Acid > Polypeptide (protein)
Monosaccharide (sugar) > Polysaccharide (carbohydrate)
Nucleotide > Nucleic Acid
Carbohydrate
-H C OH
-Monosaccharide:
simple sugar (glucose energy for cells)
bind from condensation to form glycosidic linkages
-Disaccharide: >2
-Oligosaccharide
2-20 monosaccharides
ABO blood groups
-Polysacharride
100+
Starch: storage of glucose in plants
Glycogen: storage of glucose in animals
Cellulose: very stable, good for structural components
-Ribose & deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar)
Lipids
-Fats and oils energy storage
www.notesolution.com
Triglycerides *
-Phospholipids cell membranes
Fatty acids bound to glycerol, phosphate group replace 1 fatty acid
Phosphate head hydrophilic
Fatty acid tail hydrophobic
-Carotenoids
Light absorbing pigments (Vitamin A)
-Steroids
Carbon rings
Proteins
-1 protein = 20 amino acids, can be made up of different and multiple
polypeptide chain
-Polypeptide chain = single unbranched chain of amino acids
-Amino acid has 1 H, 1 side chain R, carboxyl ( -COO- ) and amino ( -NH3+ )
R group can be
Hydrophilic charged
Polar uncharged
Non-polar hydrophobic
Bonded by peptide bonds to form polypeptide chain
-Primary structure () sequence of amino acid
-Secondary structure (2°) α helix, right handed coil resulting hydrogen
bonding
ß pleated sheet, 2 or more aligned polypeptide
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 4 Cell Structure Cell Theory Basic units of life All organisms are composed of cells All cells come from pre-existing cells Cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes - Lack membrane-enclosed organelles - Loosely organized in nucleiod regions in cytoplasm - Have plasma membrane and ribosomes - Cell wall gives support Eukaryotes - Have internal cytoskeleton for support - Have membrane-enclosed organelles Process information Nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes Control function Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomesvacuoles Process energy Mitochondria, Chloroplasts Provide structure Cytoskeleton, extracellular components - Formation led to increase in size and complexity www.notesolution.com - How? Infolding of cell membrane, endosymbiosis of membrane-bound organelles Chapter 3 - Macromolecules Amino Acid > Polypeptide (protein) Monosaccharide (sugar) > Polysaccharide (carbohydrate) Nucleotide > Nucleic Acid Carbohydrate - H C OH - Monosaccharide: simple sugar (glucose energy for cells) bind from condensation to form glycosidic linkages - Disaccharide: >2 - Oligosaccharide 2-20 monosaccharides ABO blood groups - Polysacharride 100+ Starch: storage of glucose in plants Glycogen: storage of glucose in animals Cellulose: very stable, good for structural components - Ribose & deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar) Lipids - Fats and oils energy storage www.notesolution.com
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