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BIOA02H3 (153)
Chapter 22

Chapter 22 notes

5 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA02H3
Professor
Kamini Persaud

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Chapter 22:
22.1:
natural selection: The differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by
various genotypes belonging to the same population. The mechanism of evolution
proposed by Charles Darwin.
artificial selection : Animal breeding
population: Any group of organisms coexisting at the same time and in the same
place and capable of interbreeding with one another.
adaptation: In evolutionary biology, a particular structure, physiological process, or
behavior that makes an organism better able to survive and reproduce. Also, the
evolutionary process that leads to the development or persistence of such a trait
phenotype : physical characteristics
heritable: Able to be inherited; in biology, refers to genetically influenced traits.
genotype : Genetic makeup
population genetics: The study of genetic variation and its causes within
populations.
Population genetics has three main goals:
To explain the origin and maintenance of genetic variation
To explain the patterns and organization of genetic variation
To understand the mechanisms that cause changes in allele frequencies in
populations
gene pool: All of the different alleles of all of the genes existing in all individual of a
population.
Mendelian population: A local population of individuals belonging to the same
species and exchanging genes with one another.
frequency: In population genetics, the proportion of all alleles or genotypes in a
population composed of a particular allele or genotype.
if there is 1 allele in a given location its frequency is 1
www.notesolution.com
The genetic structure of a pop. does not change over time if certain conditions exist :
If an allele is useless its frequency will not increase even though its dominant
HardyWeinberg equililbrium: The allele frequency at a given locus in a sexually
reproducing population that is not being acted on by agents of evolution; the
conditions that would result in no evolution in a population.
several conditions must be met for a pop. to be at hardy-weinberd equilibrium :
mating is random
population size is infinite
There is no gene flow. There si no mgiration either into or out of the pop.
there is no mutation. There is no change to alleles A and a, and no new
alleles are added to change the gene pool
natural selection does not affect the survival of particular genotypes. There is
no differential survival of indivs. with different genotypes
hardy-weinberg equation :
P2+2pq+q2 = 1
22.2:
mutations generate genetic variation :
mutation : any change in the organisms dna
mutations help create and maintain genetic variation within populations
gene flow may change allele frequencies :
gene flow : migration of indivs and movements of gametes between populations
genetric drift may cause large changes :
genetric drift : Random changes in allele freq.
random allele exachange can lead to the death of an 1 allele
populaton bottlenecks : populations that are normally large may pass through
occasional periods when only a small number of indivs. survive
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 22: 22.1: natural selection: The differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genotypes belonging to the same population. The mechanism of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin. artificial selection : Animal breeding population: Any group of organisms coexisting at the same time and in the same place and capable of interbreeding with one another. adaptation: In evolutionary biology, a particular structure, physiological process, or behavior that makes an organism better able to survive and reproduce. Also, the evolutionary process that leads to the development or persistence of such a trait phenotype : physical characteristics heritable: Able to be inherited; in biology, refers to genetically influenced traits. genotype : Genetic makeup population genetics: The study of genetic variation and its causes within populations. Population genetics has three main goals: To explain the origin and maintenance of genetic variation To explain the patterns and organization of genetic variation To understand the mechanisms that cause changes in allele frequencies in populations gene pool: All of the different alleles of all of the genes existing in all individual of a population. Mendelian population: A local population of individuals belonging to the same species and exchanging genes with one another. frequency: In population genetics, the proportion of all alleles or genotypes in a population composed of a particular allele or genotype. if there is 1 allele in a given location its frequency is 1 www.notesolution.com
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