Textbook Notes (381,055)
CA (168,340)
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BIOA02H3 (153)
Chapter 56

Chapter 56 notes

5 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA02H3
Professor
Kamini Persaud

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56: Ecosystems and Global Ecology
The physical environment can be divided into four compartments, whose organism
are very different
Earth is a closed system with respect to matter but open with respect to energy
Energy from the sun and radioactive decay that melts the magma in the earths
interior drive the processed that move materials around the planetmany of the
processed are cyclic
56.1: What are the compartments of the global ecosystem:
Oceans
oExchange materials with the atmosphere only at their surface
oRespond slowly to inputs, receive material from land in river run off
oUpwelling zones: occur where offshore winds push water away from shore
Cold bottom-water that moves up is nutrient rich and supports a high
photosynthetic rate
Most fisheries are in upwelling zones
Over very long time scales, most materials that cycle thought the four
compartments end up in the oceans
Fresh waters:
oRivers, lakes, ground water
oIn lakes, nutrients taken up by aquatic organisms end up as part of the
sediments
oSurface waters of lakes become depleted in nutrients
oBottom water becomes depleted in oxygen
oTurnover or mixing reverses this process turnover in shallow lakes caused
by wind and turnover in deep lakes is controlled by temperature
oIn summer, surface waters warm and the less dense water layer floats over
colder, more dense bottom watertransition called the thermocline
www.notesolution.com
Atmosphere:
oA thin layer of gases surround the earth
oThe stratosphere extends out to about 50km. Most of the materials enter the
stratosphere at the Intertropical convergence zone
oA layer of ozone in the stratosphere absorbs most of the biologically-damaging
UV radiation from the sun
oMost global air circulation and all water vapor is in the troposphere
oThe atmosphere plays a role in regulating earths temperature i.e. H2O, CO2,
and other greenhouse gases trap the heat energy
Land
oElements move slowly on land
oThe terrestrial compartment is connected to the atmospheric compartment by
organisms that remove and release elements
oChemical elements in soils can be carried in solution in groundwater and
eventually make their way to the oceans
oType of soil depends on underlying rock, organisms, climate and age old
soils less fertile
oHuman life depends intimately on terrestrial and fresh water ecosystems
56.2: How does energy flow through the global ecosystem?
Solar energy is the main energy source for all but a few types of ecosystems (caves,
deep-sea hydrothermal vents, etc)
Solar energy enters ecosystems via plants and other photosynthesizers
Gross primary productivity: rate at which energy is incorporated into
photosynthesizers. The accumulated energy is gross primary production
Producers use some of this production for their own metabolism; the rest is
storedthe amount available for primary consumers is Net Primary Production
Energy production is limited to where producers can thrive and live
www.notesolution.com

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Description
56: Ecosystems and Global Ecology The physical environment can be divided into four compartments, whose organism are very different Earth is a closed system with respect to matter but open with respect to energy Energy from the sun and radioactive decay that melts the magma in the earths interior drive the processed that move materials around the planetmany of the processed are cyclic 56.1: What are the compartments of the global ecosystem: Oceans o Exchange materials with the atmosphere only at their surface o Respond slowly to inputs, receive material from land in river run off o Upwelling zones: occur where offshore winds push water away from shore Cold bottom-water that moves up is nutrient rich and supports a high photosynthetic rate Most fisheries are in upwelling zones Over very long time scales, most materials that cycle thought the four compartments end up in the oceans Fresh waters: o Rivers, lakes, ground water o In lakes, nutrients taken up by aquatic organisms end up as part of the sediments o Surface waters of lakes become depleted in nutrients o Bottom water becomes depleted in oxygen o Turnover or mixing reverses this process turnover in shallow lakes caused by wind and turnover in deep lakes is controlled by temperature o In summer, surface waters warm and the less dense water layer floats over colder, more dense bottom watertransition called the thermocline www.notesolution.com
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