Textbook Notes (381,289)
CA (168,463)
UTSC (19,325)
BIOA02H3 (153)
Chapter

Evolution

2 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA02H3
Professor
Kamini Persaud

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Biology Lecture 1 Evolution
There are things in the world that keep the population of the world in check
so that we dont overpopulate the world.
These factors include: epidemics, famine, high death rates, and low birth
rates.
Certain individuals that die are due to adaptation; the individual that is the
fittest in their environment will survive and out live the rest of their species.
If for a trait to be evolved there has to be a heritable component to the trait.
For there to be evolutionary change there has to be an increase in the
frequency of the genes.
For any evolutionary change there has to be different genes to begin with.
Mutation is the first step of evolutionary change.
Most mutations are very neutral, causing evolution to occur very slowly.
One way for evolution to occur is migration, if a person with new genes comes
into a population that is very biased then the new individual adds their genes
into the mix.
Another cause of evolution is chance. For example a number of individuals
carrying one gene meets up with a number carry the same gene and make
this particular gene very dominant.
Directional Selection when a certain trait becomes more dominant due to a
change in environment. EX. Animals can see in the dark some better then
others but this is not need then one day the animals move to a very dark
environment and then this trait becomes more important and more
dominant.
Disruptive Selection- favours individuals that vary in opposite directions from
the average.
Sexual selection can actually oppose natural selection.
Neutral Mutations- many mutations do not affect the functions of the
resulting proteins. An allele that does not affect fitness is a neutral allele.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Biology Lecture 1 Evolution There are things in the world that keep the population of the world in check so that we dont overpopulate the world. These factors include: epidemics, famine, high death rates, and low birth rates. Certain individuals that die are due to adaptation; the individual that is the fittest in their environment will survive and out live the rest of their species. If for a trait to be evolved there has to be a heritable component to the trait. For there to be evolutionary change there has to be an increase in the frequency of the genes. For any evolutionary change there has to be different genes to begin with. Mutation is the first step of evolutionary change. Most mutations are very neutral, causing evolution to occur very slowly. One way for evolution to occur is migration, if a person with new genes comes into a population that is very biased
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