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Chapter 55

Chapter 55: Community Ecology

5 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA02H3
Professor
Kamini Persaud

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Sanchika Kanagalingam
April 12th 2011
Biology II
Chapter 55: Community Ecology
individuals of different species that live in a given area
oit was thought that communities only have one species, but that is not the fact
the area that you a whole bunch of species is what forms a community
categories species within a certain community is through
ohow they get energy
autotrophic- harness energy form only the sun
heterotrophy- cant harness energy form the sun, eat other to get energy
omap relationships between species on who eats who, Food chain
a food web is map relationship where the animal eats more than one item
can have infinite number of communities
oorganisms in a ocean
oin a forest
ograss land
they all tend to have in common is level of tropic level
oall tend to have 5 tropic level
owhen energy is passed through eating, you are not getting all the energy that the
plant got from the sun
oenergy is lost between tropic levels
oa pattern most of it is held at the autotroph ic stage (primary producers)
as you go up the tropic level less energy is harnessed , due to the loss
same pattern in each community just the distribution is different for each
depending on what the species are
eg. Forest
primary producers tend to be tree bark, which primary consumers
cant get at that energy
so the majority of energy is at the autotrophic level and much less
at the heterotrophic level
eg. Grass land
energy is not held in trees but instead in grasses, which are grazed
you see the same pattern but different distribution
in grassland the second tropic level would get more energy transfer
and the second trophic level in the forest land would have less
energy transfer
biomass is the total mass of the organic materials, tends to correspond with energy
oalso a way to represent energy flow or where there is energy flow
omost of the biomass be held in the primary producer level and less in the primary
consumer level and more less in the secondary consumer level
oone exception is the ocean
here there is less biomass in the primary producer level and more in the
primary consumer level
www.notesolution.com
Sanchika Kanagalingam
April 12th 2011
Biology II
the primary producers in the oceans are different
most of the time not vegetation
most harnessing of energy is done by micro-organisms
have a very fast turnover rate
oconstantly eaten by consumers and reproduce at a fast rate
ohence their biomass is low
What Processes influence Community Structure?
how you compete with, interact with
predators can reduce the size of prey populations, but predator-prey relationships are
usually more complex
predation- who do you eat
oif youre a predator species thats very abundant, what happens is you cause your
prey species to go instinct
othen as the predator since there is no prey your number of individuals go down
othen as predators go down they prey species increase
othis is a oscillating pattern
growth of predator population nearly always lags growth of prey population
Prey species have evolved adaptions to make them more difficult to capture which results
in predators that have evolved more effective was to capture way. Similarly makes have
evolved ways to persuade their values to females which evolved females to be more
choosy this is known as the arm race
Parasites- in most cases keep their host alive, take advantageous of them
oso they are able to pass on to another host
parasite are transferred from host to host by various ways such as breath, body fluids,
water, and animal vectors
As our immune system gets immune to pathogen, the pathogen evolved to work better
oEg. When we are given antibiotics and not finish them thinking we are cured but
the bacteria started to evolve and resist the antibiotic and makes everything worse
Competition- both loose out, exert a lot of energy and time by competing with other
individual
If you didnt compete it would be better
oInterference competition-one species interferes with the activities of another,
another individual keeps you from a resource you need
Eg. Strategy to get females is to be physical with men
oExploitation competition-one species reduced the availability of resources, other
individual uses the same resource and keeps you from getting the resource
Eg. Strategy to get female is by seducing them
Individual can compete within the same species, and different species
oEg. Two barnacle species compete in the intertidal zone, ending up in two distinct
bands
Ammensal and commensal- effect of one individual on annoehr individual is an bi
product
www.notesolution.com

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Sanchika Kanagalingam April 12 2011 Biology II Chapter 55: Community Ecology individuals of different species that live in a given area o it was thought that communities only have one species, but that is not the fact the area that you a whole bunch of species is what forms a community categories species within a certain community is through o how they get energy autotrophic- harness energy form only the sun heterotrophy- cant harness energy form the sun, eat other to get energy o map relationships between species on who eats who, Food chain a food web is map relationship where the animal eats more than one item can have infinite number of communities o organisms in a ocean o in a forest o grass land they all tend to have in common is level of tropic level o all tend to have 5 tropic level o when energy is passed through eating, you are not getting all the energy that the plant got from the sun o energy is lost between tropic levels o a pattern most of it is held at the autotroph ic stage (primary producers) as you go up the tropic level less energy is harnessed , due to the loss same pattern in each community just the distribution is different for each depending on what the species are eg. Forest primary producers tend to be tree bark, which primary consumers cant get at that energy so the majority of energy is at the autotrophic level and much less at the heterotrophic level eg. Grass land energy is not held in trees but instead in grasses, which are grazed you see the same pattern but different distribution in grassland the second tropic level would get more energy transfer and the second trophic level in the forest land would have less energy transfer biomass is the total mass of the organic materials, tends to correspond with energy o also a way to represent energy flow or where there is energy flow o most of the biomass be held in the primary producer level and less in the primary consumer level and more less in the secondary consumer level o one exception is the ocean here there is less biomass in the primary producer level and more in the primary consumer level www.notesolution.com
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