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Chapter 52

Chapter 52 Study Guide

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA02H3
Professor
Dr.Persaud

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Chapter 52 Ecology and the Distribution of Life
52.1 What is Ecology?
-ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment
-communities are systems including all organisms living in the same area
-ecosystems are systems including all organisms in an area plus their physical environment
-biosphere is system that includes all regions of the planet where organisms live
-environment includes abiotic (physical and chemical) factors, such as water, mineral nutrients,
light, temperature, and wind, and biotic factors (living organisms)
-interactions between organisms and environment are two-way processes: organisms both
influence and are influenced by environment
52.2 How Are Climates Distributed on Earth?
-climate is the average of the atmospheric conditions (temperature, precipitation, wind direction,
and velocity) over the long term
-weather is short-term state of the conditions
-solar energy affects atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns
Solar energy drives global climates
-rate at which solar energy arrives on Earth depends on the angle of sunlight
-if the sun is low in the sky, the amount of solar energy is spread over a large area and is less
intense than if the sun is directly overhead
-its light passes through more of Earth’s atmosphere, more of its energy is absorbed and reflected
before it reaches the ground
-higher latitudes receive less solar energy than latitudes closer to equator
-higher latitudes experience greater variation in both day length and angle of arriving solar
energy in the year, resulting in a more seasonal variation in temperature
-air temperature decreases with elevation
-as air rises, it expands, its pressure and temperature drop, it releases moisture
-when air descends, it is compressed, its pressure rises, its temperature increases, it takes up
moisture
-global air circulation patterns result from global variation in solar energy and spinning of Earth
on its axis
-air rises when it is heated by sun
-rising air is replaced by air that flows in toward equator from north and south
-coming together of air masses produces intertropical convergence zone
-the zone shifts latitudinally with seasons, following shift in the zone of greatest solar energy
input
-shift results in predictable rainy and dry seasons in tropical and subtropical regions
-at 60 north and south latitudes, air rises and moves either toward/ away from equator
-at the poles, air descends because there is little solar energy input
-Earth’s spinning velocity is rapid at equator where its diameter is greatest
-Earth’s velocity is slow close to poles
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-as air mass moves toward equator, it confronts an increasingly faster spin, rotational movement
is slower than that of Earth beneath it
-as air mass moves poleward, it confronts an increasingly slow spin, it speeds up relative to Earth
beneath it
-air masses that move toward equator from north and south become northeast and southeast trade
winds
-air masses that move away from equator become westerly winds
-clouds form on the windward side of mountains and release moisture as rain/ snow
-on leeward side of mountains, dry air descends, warms and picks up moisture
-rain shadow is formed on the leeward sides of mountain ranges
Global oceanic circulation is driven by wind patterns
-air circulation patterns drive circulation patterns of ocean water (current)
-trade winds cause water to converge at the equator and move westward
-when it hits the continent, the warm water transfers large amount of heat to high latitudes and
toward the poles
-water flowing toward the poles turns eastward
-flows toward the equator along western sides
Organisms must adapt to changes in their environment
-plants adapt to hot conditions by reducing water loss and avoid overheating by shifting position
of leaves
-intercept sunlight early and late in the day, do not overheat at midday
-dispersal is when organisms move to a new place
-leave site of birth to find better place to reproduce
-seek new places to live when local conditions deteriorate
-repeated seasonal changes alter environment, organisms evolve life cycles that anticipate
changes
-migration is a response to cyclical environmental change
-animals enter resting state (estivation, hibernation, diapauses) before adverse conditions
materialize
52.3 What is a Biome?
-biome is terrestrial environment defined by growth forms of its plants
-common biomes include forest, grassland, desert, and tundra
-in temperate deciduous, precipitation is relatively constant
-temperature varies between summer and winter
-in the tropics, temperature fluctuations are small, annual cycles are dominated by wet and dry
seasons
-rainfall varies seasonally
-tropical biome types are determined by length of dry season
Tundra is found at high latitudes and in high mountains
-tundra is found in Arctic and at high elevations in mountains at all latitudes
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Description
Chapter 52 Ecology and the Distribution of Life 52.1 What is Ecology? -ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment -communities are systems including all organisms living in the same area -ecosystems are systems including all organisms in an area plus their physical environment -biosphere is system that includes all regions of the planet where organisms live -environment includes abiotic (physical and chemical) factors, such as water, mineral nutrients, light, temperature, and wind, and biotic factors (living organisms) -interactions between organisms and environment are two-way processes: organisms both influence and are influenced by environment 52.2 How Are Climates Distributed on Earth? -climate is the average of the atmospheric conditions (temperature, precipitation, wind direction, and velocity) over the long term -weather is short-term state of the conditions -solar energy affects atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns Solar energy drives global climates -rate at which solar energy arrives on Earth depends on the angle of sunlight -if the sun is low in the sky, the amount of solar energy is spread over a large area and is less intense than if the sun is directly overhead -its light passes through more of Earths atmosphere, more of its energy is absorbed and reflected before it reaches the ground -higher latitudes receive less solar energy than latitudes closer to equator -higher latitudes experience greater variation in both day length and angle of arriving solar energy in the year, resulting in a more seasonal variation in temperature -air temperature decreases with elevation -as air rises, it expands, its pressure and temperature drop, it releases moisture -when air descends, it is compressed, its pressure rises, its temperature increases, it takes up moisture -global air circulation patterns result from global variation in solar energy and spinning of Earth on its axis -air rises when it is heated by sun -rising air is replaced by air that flows in toward equator from north and south -coming together of air masses produces intertropical convergence zone -the zone shifts latitudinally with seasons, following shift in the zone of greatest solar energy input -shift results in predictable rainy and dry seasons in tropical and subtropical regions -at 60 north and south latitudes, air rises and moves either toward away from equator -at the poles, air descends because there is little solar energy input -Earths spinning velocity is rapid at equator where its diameter is greatest -Earths velocity is slow close to poles www.notesolution.com
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