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Chapter 34

chapter 34

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA02H3
Professor
Mary Olaveson

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Chapter 34: The Plant Body
34.1: How is the Plant Body Organized:
Angiosperms (flowering plants; vascular plants characterized by double
fertilization, triploid endosperm, seeds enclosed in modified in modified leaves
called carpels) have two major clades
Monocots: generally narrow-leaved flowering plants such as grasses, lilies,
orchids and palms.
Eudicots: broad leaved flowering plants such as soybeans, roses and
sunflowers
Both these organisms, all organs are organized in two systems
Shoot system: the aerial parts of a vascular plant, consisting of
the leaves, stems, and flowers
Leaves: chief organism of photosynthesis
Blade: thin, flat structure attached to the stem
Petiole: stalk that attaches blade
Stems: hold and display the leaves to the sun and provide
connections for the transport of materials between roots and leaves;
elevate and support the reproductive organs (flowers) and photosynthetic
organs (leaves)
Axillary bud: a bud occurring in the upper angle (axil) between a
leaf and stem
Apical Bud: produces the cells for the upward and outward
growth and development of that shoot
Nodes: points of attachment of leaf to stem
Internodes: stem regions between successive nodes
Root system: anchors plant in place and provides nutrition; high
surface to volume ratio of roots allow them to absorb water and mineral
nutrients from the soil; two typical types of root systems
Taproot system: single, large, deep growing primary root
accompanied by less prominent lateral roots.
Fibrous Root System: composed of numerous thin roots that are
all roughly equal in diameter
Adventitious roots are roots that arise above the ground
Tissue Systems:
Tissue: an organized group of cells that have features in common and that
work together as structural and functional units
Tissue System: a group of tissues
Vascular Tissue System: the plants plumbing or transport system.
Xylem: distributes water and mineral ions taken up by the roots to all the
cells of the stem and leaves (transport, support and storage)
Phloem: transports carbohydrates from sites of production to sites of
storage.
Dermal Tissue System: outer covering of the plant
Epidermis: a single or several layers that regulate gas exchange for leaves
Cuticle: wax-covered cutin layer which helps with water loss.
Ground Tissue System: functions primarily in storage, support,
photosynthesis, and the production of defensive and attractive substances
34.2: How Are Plant Cells Unique:
There are certain organelles that are specific to a plant cell not seen in other
eukaryotes:
Contain chloroplasts or other plastids
Contain vacuoles
Possess cellulose-containing cell walls
Cell Walls:
Cytokenesis of a plant cell completed when two daughter cells are separated by a
cell plate; deposit middle lamella (gluelike substance); daughter cell secretes
cellulose to form the primary wall; continues as the cell expands to its final size.
Once cell expansion stops, a secondary wall may be created
Plasmodesmata: cytoplasm filled canals that pass through the primary wall
allowing direct communication between plant cells. (located on primary wall)
Parenchyma Cells:
Parenchyma cells: usually have thin walls, consisting of only a primary wall and
a shared middle lamella—and most have large central vacuoles; photosynthetic
cells; may appear as “packing material to support the stem
Collenchyma Cells:
Supporting cells; primary walls characteristically thick at the corners of the cells
and elongated, provides support to leaf petioles, nonwoody stems, and growing
organs; flexible
Sclerenchyma Cells:
Have thickened secondary walls that perform their major function: support; die
after laying down their cell walls—perform support function when dead; two
types: fibers and sclerieds
Xylem:
Tracheary Elements: undergo programmed cell death before they assume their
function of transporting water and dissolved minerals
Tracheids: when cells contents disentegrate upon cell death, water and minerals
can move with little resistance from one tracheid to its neighbours by way of pits,
interruptions in the secondary wall that leave the primary wall unobstructed.
Vessel elements: must also die and become empty before they can transport water
Phloem:
Sieve tube elements: characteristic cells of the phloem; meet end to end; contain
plasmodesmata that enlarge to form pores enhancing connection.
Sieve Plates: as the holes in these plates expand the membrane that encloses the
central vacuole disappears
Phloem Sap: sieve tube filled with this, consisting of water, dissolved sugars, and
other solutes. Moves along sieve tubes
Companion Cells: produced as a daughter cell along with the sieve tube element
when a parent cell divides
34.3: How do Meristems Build the Plant Body:
Two patterns contribute to the plant body plan:
The arrangement of cells and tissues along the main axis from
root to shoot
The concentric arrangement of the tissue systems
As the plant body grows it may lose parts, and it forms new parts that may grow at
different rates; new molecules are formed as long as the stem continues to grow:
Each branch of a plant may be thought of as a module that is
independent of other branches; long lived, lasting from years to centuries
Leaves are modules of another sort. They are usually short lived,
lasting weeks to a few years
Root systems are also branching structures, and lateral roots are
semi-independent units, many roots die and are replaced by new ones.
Primary plant body: consists of all non-woody parts of the plant (monocots
consist of this primarily)
Secondary plant body: tissues are laid down as the stems and roots thicken;
primary plant body includes leaves, flowers, and all parts of the body that were
laid down before thickening begins
Meristems: forever young, retaining the ability to produce new cells indefinitely;
comparable to stem cells.
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Description
Chapter 34: The Plant Body Possess cellulose-containing cell walls Cell Walls: 34.1: How is the Plant Body Organized: Angiosperms (flowering plants; vascular plants characterized by double Cytokenesis of a plant cell completed when two daughter cells are separated by a fertilization, triploid endosperm, seeds enclosed in modified in modified leavescell plate; deposit middle lamella (gluelike substance); daughter cell secretes cellulose to form the primary wall; continues as the cell expands to its final size. called carpels) have two major clades Monocots: generally narrow-leaved flowering plants such as grasses, lilies, Once cell expansion stops, a secondary wall may be created orchids and palms. Plasmodesmata: cytoplasm filled canals that pass through the primary wall allowing direct communication between plant cells. (located on primary wall) Eudicots: broad leaved flowering plants such as soybeans, roses and sunflowers Parenchyma Cells: Both these organisms, all organs are organized in two systems Parenchyma cells: usually have thin walls, consisting of only a primary wall and a shared middle lamellaand most have large central vacuoles; photosynthetic Shoot system: the aerial parts of a vascular plant, consisting of cells; may appear as packing material to support the stem the leaves, stems, and flowers Collenchyma Cells: Leaves: chief organism of photosynthesis Supporting cells; primary walls characteristically thick at the corners of the cells Blade: thin, flat structure attached to the stem and elongated, provides support to leaf petioles, nonwoody stems, and growing organs; flexible Petiole: stalk that attaches blade Sclerenchyma Cells: Have thickened secondary walls that perform their major function: support; die Stems: hold and display the leaves to the sun and provide after laying down their cell wallsperform support function when dead; two connections for the transport of materials between roots and leaves; types: fibers and sclerieds elevate and support the reproductive organs (flowers) and photosyntXylem: organs (leaves) Axillary bud: a bud occurring in the upper angle (axil) between a Tracheary Elements: undergo programmed cell death before they assume their function of transporting water and dissolved minerals leaf and stem Apical Bud: produces the cells for the upward and outward Tracheids: when cells contents disentegrate upon cell death, water and minerals growth and development of that shoot can move with little resistance from one tracheid to its neighbours by way of pits, interruptions in the secondary wall that leave the primary wall unobstructed. Nodes: points of attachment of leaf to stem Vessel elements: must also die and become empty before they can transport water Internodes: stem regions between successive nodes Phloem: Root system: anchors plant in place and provides nutrition; high surface to volume ratio of roots allow them to absorb water and mineral Sieve tube element
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