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BIOA01H3 (202)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 notes.docx

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Biological Sciences
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Robin Marushia

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BIOA01 – CH 2 NOTES  Cytosol: cytoplasmic solution surrounding the organelles assists in energy metabolism, molecular synthesis, support and utility  Plasma membrane consists of several embedded proteins that : - work as channels and move substances into & out of the cell - act as receptors - important markers in the immune system , mark some cells as “self” so the immune system is aware that they are not pathogenic  Plant, fungi and many protists consist of a supportive cell wall that lies outside the plasma membrane (extracellular structure)  Nuclear envelope: separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Consists of two membranes, one layered just inside the other with a narrow space dividing the two  Lamin – protein filaments that reinforces the inner surface of the nuclear envelope  Nuclear Pore: large octagonal proteins that are embedded in the nuclear envelope and exchanges components between the cytoplasm and nucleus  Some proteins must be carried into the nucleus to perform their functions; these proteins are distinguished by a special short amino acid sequence called a nuclear localization signal  A specific protein in the cytosol recognizes and binds to the nuclear localization signal and moves it to the nuclear pore where it is moved into the nucleus  Nucleoplasm: liquid substance within the nucleus  Most of the space inside the nucleus is filled with chromatin  The term chromatin refers to any collection of eukaryotic DNA molecules
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