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Chapter 1

Chapter 1: Introduction to Cell Biology

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Tanya Da Sylva

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Sanchika Kanagalingam
Cellular Biology
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Cell
What is Cell Biology?
Multiple levels of organization
oFocusing on macromolecules
oHow those macromolecules come to form organelles within a cell
oHow the cells from tissues and a whole animal then a community of animals
Why do we study Cell Biology?
All living things are composed of cells
It is what distinguishes something alive from something that is not alive (virus)
Multicellular organisms depend on the interaction and cohesion between cells
How does a cell function?
Mainly depends on protein
oMake up enzymes
oOther macromolecules
oMajor Structural Component
oReceptor Channels
How the cells communicate with each other
Genes are what encode for proteins
oProteins control how genes are activated
How and when they get transcribed

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Sanchika Kanagalingam
Cellular Biology
When a cell is formed it is a self-contained unit
The Discovery of Cells
Cells were first discovered in the early 1600s with the aid of microscopes
First person who discovered cells under a microscope was Robert Hooke
oHe was looking at corks and names them cells because it reminded him of the cells which
monks lived in. What he was actually looking at was the plant wall.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek was looking at pond water and found little things moving and he called
them animicules
oNot everyone believed this
oWhen it was confirmed by other scientist, people began to believe that things they
couldnt be able to see are actually alive.
Robert Hooke also went to confirm this findings
oAnton van Leeuwenhoek was also the first to describe various forms of bacteria
It wasnt until the 1830s until the importance of cells where realized
In 1838 Matthias Schleiden concluded that the structures of various tissues, plants were made of
oAlso that the plant embryo arose from a single cell.
In 1839 Theodor Schwann published a report on the cellular basis of animal life.
oConcluded that plants and animals are similar structures
Both Schleiden and Schwann agreed that cells could arise from non-cellular material
oAfter many years more as more scientist did research on cells they found that cells did no
rise from non-cellular material
In 1855 Rudolf Virchow concluded that cells can only arise from only preexisting cells
With the discoveries of these scientist the Cell Theory was composed, which is composed of
three factors:
oAll organisms are composed of one or more cells

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Sanchika Kanagalingam
Cellular Biology
oThe cell is the structural unit of life
oCells can arise only by division from a preexisting cell
The cell theory still holds true till today
Basic Properties of Cells
Cells just like plants and animals also are alive
Whole cells can be removed from a plant or animal and grown in a culture at a laboratory
oIf mistreated they can die
oDeath is also considered as a basic property of life
The first culture of human cells was begun by George and Martha Gey
oThe cells were obtained from a malignant tumor and named HeLa cells after the donor
Henrietta Lacke
Cells are Highly Complex and Organized
oComplexity in terms of order and consistency
oThe more complex a structure
The more ordered the parts will be
The less tolerance of errors
More regulation or control must be exerted to maintain the system
oEg. DNA duplication , has an error rate of less than one mistake every ten million
oEach type of cell has a consistent appearance when viewed under a high-powered electron
Organelles have a certain shape and location
Cells possess a genetic program and the means to use it
oCells have transcription and translation machinery
They can take genetic (genes) and turn them into proteins that help the cell run
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