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BIOB11H3 (13)
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Chapter 10

chapter 10 notes

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB11H3
Professor
Dan Riggs

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Chapter 10
Mendel's findings:
1. Distinct factors of inheritance (genes/alleles) govern the
characteristics of plants through dominant/recessive.
2. Each gamete contains only one allele.
3. Law of segregation: pair of alleles segregate when forming
gametes.
4. Law of independent assortment: segregation of one allele is
independent of another.
Sutton found 11 bivalents (pair of homologous chromosomes) and one
free chromosone X (the sex chromosome). He also had the thought of
linkage groups (which somewhat contradicted Mendel's independent
assortment).
Morgan studied mutations on Drosophila and confirmed that genes
reside on chromosomes and that there was linkage groups.
He also suggested that crossing over (or genetic recombination) occurs.
The percentage of recombination between a given pair of genes is
constant while the percentage of recombination between different pairs
of genes could be very different.
Chargaff found out that the ratio of A:G:T:C was not 1:1:1:1 as predicted
by the tetranucleotide theory. He also found that it is always
www.notesolution.com
true that A=T and G=C.
DNA is 2 nm wide. Distance between nucleotides = 0.34 nm. Complete
turn occurs every 3.4 nm (every 10 nucleotides).
Topoisomerases are enzymes that change the topology (spercoiled state)
of DNA.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________
The melting temperature is that at which the shift in absorbance of
DNA to UV light as a result of denaturation is half completed.
Higher Tm is correlated with higher percentage of G and C (because
they have 3 hydrogen bonds - harder to break).
Once the heat is gone, the separated DNA strands would make out again
(renaturation or reannealing).
The rate of renaturation is affected by:
- The ionic strength of the solution
- The incubation temperature
- The incubation period
- The concentration of DNA
- The size of interacting molecules
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 10 Mendels findings: 1. Distinct factors of inheritance (genesalleles) govern the characteristics of plants through dominantrecessive. 2. Each gamete contains only one allele. 3. Law of segregation: pair of alleles segregate when forming gametes. 4. Law of independent assortment: segregation of one allele is independent of another. Sutton found 11 bivalents (pair of homologous chromosomes) and one free chromosone X (the sex chromosome). He also had the thought of linkage groups (which somewhat contradicted Mendels independent assortment). Morgan studied mutations on Drosophila and confirmed that genes reside on chromosomes and that there was linkage groups. He also suggested that crossing over (or genetic recombination) occurs. The percentage of recombination between a given pair of genes is constant while the percentage of recombination between different pairs of genes could be very different. Chargaff found out that the ratio of A:G:T:C was not 1:1:1:1 as predicted by the tetranucleotide theory. He also found that it is always www.notesolution.com
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