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Chapter 1

BIOB34H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Fluid Compartments, Extracellular Fluid, Major Trauma

Biological Sciences
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Thursday May 12, 2011 CHAPTER 1 1
Physiology the study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts,
including all its chemical and physical processes
Anatomy the study of structure, with much less emphasis in function
Physiology encompasses many levels of organization, from the molecular level all the way up to
populations of a species
o Integumentary systemcomposed of the skin; forms a protective boundary that
separates the body’s internal environment from the external environment
o Musculoskeletal systemprovides support and body movement
Four systems exchange materials between the internal and external environments
o Respiratory system exchanges gases
o Digestive system takes up nutrients and water and eliminates waste
o Urinary systemremoves excess water and waste material
o Reproductive systemproduces eggs or sperm
Four systems extend throughout the body
o Circulatory systemdistributes materials by pumping blood through vessels
o Nervous/Endocrine Systemscoordinate body functions
The function of a physiological system or event is the “why” of the system
Teleological approach describing physiological processes by their purpose rather than their
Mechanistic approachthe ability to explain the mechanisms that underlie physiological events
Extracellular fluidthe watery internal environment of multicellular animals
o fluid within the body that surrounds the cells
o serves as the transition between an organisms external environment and intracellular
o since ECF is a buffer zone between the outside world and most cells of the body,
elaborate physiological processes have evolved to keep its composition relatively stable
intracellular fluid fluid within the cells
if the body fails to maintain homeostasis, then normal function is disrupted and a disease state,
or pathological condition, may result
2 different types of disease groups
o Those in which the problem arises from internal failure of some normal physiological
process. Ex…
Abnormal growth of cells (cancer or benign tumours)
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