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Chapter 1

BIOB50H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Tropical And Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Pacific Decadal Oscillation

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Marc Cadotte

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The web of life 8/31/2013 6:23:00 AM
Concept 1.1: events in the natural woalrd are interconnected
Connections in nature
Connections to nature: events in natural wolrd are connect:
connections when organisms interact with one another in
Early observations suggest that parasites cause amphibian deformaties.
Amphibian: ambystoma macrodactylum. Parasite: ribeiroia ondatrae.
Laboratory experiment tests the role of parasites. Control group- h.
regilla eggs not known to have frog deformation . given treatment:
increase number of parasite.
A field experiment suggest that multiple factors influence frog
deformities. Pesticide. Increase pesticide=increase infection
Connections in nature can lead to anticipated side effect; increase
fertilizeralgae growthsnail eat alge, snail growth.
Concept 1.2: ecology is the scientific study of interactions between
organisms and their environment
Ecology: study of interaction between organisms and environment./ study of
interactions that determine distribution-geographic location and abundance
of organisms.
Environment science: field that incorporates natural science (ecology)/ social
science( politic,economic,ethic).
Public and professional ideas about ecology often differ. Public think
that there is a balance of nature-natural stystem are stable and
return to original after disturbance / each species have role of
maintaining balance. But! They do not return to original condition.
o 8 ecollogical maxims
you can never do just one thing-things are connect
everything goes somewhere-waste don’t go away
no population can increase size forever-limits
there is no free lunch-reproduction trade or growth?
Evolution matters-changes
Time matter-ecosystem change over time
Space matter-abiotic/biotic change. Local to global

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Life would be impossible without species interaction-
species depend on each other for reosource.
The scale of an ecological study affects what can be learned from it.
Scale-collecting observation including time/space.
Ecology is broad in scope. Population: group of one species in area.
Community: group of population in area . Biotic=living things.
Abiotic-non living things. Ecosystem: community of organism and
environment. Landscape: one place to another with many
ecosystem. Biosphere: all living organism and environment.
Some key terms are helpful for styding connections in nature.
o Adaptation: feature of an organism that improves it ability to
survive/reproduce in environment
o Natural selection: evolutionary process in which individual
that possess characteristic to surviv/e reproduce at higher
rates than others. E.g antibiotic.s
o Consumer: organism that obtain energy by eating others
o Producer: organism that use energy from external source=
sun= to produce food
o Net primary production: energy that producers fix by
photosynthesis minus cellular respiration = photosynthesis-
cellular respiration
o Nutrient cycle: movement of nutrient between organism and
o Evolution:
Change in genetic characteristic of population
Descent with modification: process where organism
accumulate differences with ancesteors.
Concept 1.3 Ecologists evaluate competing hypotheses about natural system
with observation, experiment and models
Anwering ecological questions
Ecologists use experiment, observation, model to answer ecological
questions. Climate change; directional change in climate that occurs
over 3 decade or longer.

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Experiments that are designed and analyzed in consistent ways.
Replicate=perform more than once / random treatment/ analyze
result. Plots. Statistical analysis=t test.
What we know about ecology is always changing. Scientific method:
o Observe nature and ask question about these observations
o Use previous knowledge to create hypothesis
o Evaluate hypothesis by xperiment
o Results.
Deformity and decline in amphibian population.
Habitat loss, parasite, disease, pollution, overexploitation, climate
change, introduce species, UV light may contribute to amphibian
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