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BIOC34H3 Chapter Notes -Exhalation, Pneumothorax, Adipose Tissue


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC34H3
Professor
Stephen Reid

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1
BGYC34; Third Assignment (2010)
PhysioEx Lab 7 (Respiratory System Mechanics)
Introduction
The goal of this lab was to stimulate spirometry and measuring the tidal volume, inspiratory
reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, vital capacity, residual volume and lung capacity,
using a pair of mechanical lungs. Furthermore, computer simulations were carried out to see the
affects of various factors such as lung compliance, presence of surfactant and the presence or
absence of injury in the thoracic walls that affect respiration. Surfactant is a lipid material
secreted into the alveolar fluid, is another. Surfactant acts to decrease the surface tension of
water in the fluid that lines the walls of the alveoli. Furthermore, presence of an injury in the
thoracic walls would effectively raise the intrathoracic pressure to that of atmospheric pressure,
preventing diaphragm contraction from decreasing intrathoracic pressure and, consequently,
preventing air from being drawn into the lungs.
Methods
A trial run was carried out to measure the respiratory volumes through computer simulations
prior to the start of the experiments. In order to measure normal respiratory volumes it was made
sure that the radius of the air flow tube was at 5.00 mm by clicking the (-) or (+) buttons next to
the radius display. The start button was clicked and the oscilloscope monitor was observed till
the trace reached the 10-second mark on the monitor, the ERV button was then clicked to obtain
the expiratory reserve volume. After 30 seconds the FVC button was clicked to obtain the forced
vital capacity. Once the trace reached the end of the screen, the Stop button was clicked,
proceeded by clicking Record Data. From the recorded data the minute respiratory volume was
then calculated.
Next the Effect of Restricted Air Flow on Respiratory Volumes simulation was carried out. The
radius of the air flow tube was adjusted to 4.00 mm. The afore mentioned procedure to measure
the normal respiratory volumes were carried out. Next the tracings were cleared and the radius of
the air flow tube was lowered down to 3.50 mm proceeded by the steps carried to measure the
normal respiratory volumes. Furthermore the radius was reduced to 3.00 mm proceeded by the
steps carried to measure the normal respiratory volumes. The data was then printed. The data for
FEV was recorded in table 1.
Next, the effect of surfactant on respiratory volumes simulation was carried out.
The radius of the air flow tube was set at 5.00 mm, and the Pump Rate was set at 15
strokes/minute. The start button was then clicked and the trace was allowed to sweep across the
full length of the oscilloscope monitor. Data was recorded to obtain the control for the
experimental runs. Next, Surfactant was clicked twice to add surfactant to the system and data
was recorded.

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2
Simulation for Effect of Thoracic Cavity Puncture was carried out. Flush was clicked to remove
the surfactant. Airflow radius was set to 5.00 mm and pump rate to 15 strokes/min. Simulation
was started and data was recorded as the baseline. “Valve closed” was then clicked and the
experiment was started and recorded towards the end.
Next, the simulation for rapid breathing was carried out. Radius was set to 5.00 mm and the
experiment was started to conduct a baseline. The data was recorded and then started again and
the “rapid breathing” button was clicked when the trace reached 10-second mark. The the PCO2
levels in the display windows were then observed. The trace was allowed to finish and the data
was recorded. In order to observe the Rebreathing simulation, the afore mentioned steps were
carried out and instead of clicking “rapid breathing”, the “rebreathing” button was clicked.
Breath holding was stimulated by clicking start and conducting a baseline. Data was recorded.
The experiment was started again but this time breath holding was clicked and when the trace
reached the 10 sec mark the PCO2 levels were observed. At the 20 second mark, “Normal
breathing” was clicked and the trace was allowed to finish. Data was recorded.
Next, normal breathing simulation was carried out by clicking the experiment menu and
selecting comparative spirometry. Normal option from the drop-down menu in the Patient Type
box was selected. The patients breathing pattern was set to Unforced Breathing from the
Breathing Pattern Option box. Experiment was started. When half the screen was filled with
unforced tidal volumes and the trace had paused, the Forced Vital Capacity
Button in the Breathing Pattern Options box was selected
To observe the emphysema breathing patient’s breathing pattern was set to Unforced Breathing
from the Breathing Pattern box. The experiment was started and the same steps as for the Normal
breathing simulation were carried out. Next, Asthmatic from the drop-down menu in the Patient
Type box was selected and patient’s breathing pattern was set to Unforced Breathing from the
Breathing Pattern box. The experiment was started and the same steps as for the Normal
breathing simulation were carried out. Next, Plus Inhaler from the drop-down menu in the
Patient Type box was selected and the patient’s breathing pattern was set to Unforced Breathing
from the Breathing Pattern box. The experiment was started and the same steps as for the Normal
breathing simulation were carried out. Lastly, Moderate Exercise from the drop-down menu in
the Patient Type box was selected and the experiment was started. Individual measure buttons
were then clicked. Next heavy exercise was selected and the experiment was started and again
the individual measure buttons were clicked.
Results

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3
RESPIRATORY VOLUMES
Activity 2: Measuring Normal Respiratory Volumes (1 mark)
Normal Respiratory Volumes
Breathing Frequency: 15 breaths/minute
Tidal Volume: 0.5 L
Minute Ventilation: 7.5 L breath/minute
Inspiratory Time: 2 second
Expiratory Time: 2 second
Activity 3: Effect of Restricted Air Flow on Respiratory Volumes (2 marks)
Effect of Restricted Air Flow on Respiratory Volumes
Forced Expiratory Volume Expressed as a Percentage of Vital Capacity
FACTORS AFFECTING RESPIRATION
Radius (mm)
FEV1(mL)
Vital Capacity(mL)
FEV1 (%)
5.00
3541
4791
73.9
4.00
1422
1962
72.5
3.50
822
1150
71.5
3.00
436
621
70.2
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